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Earth Science Review

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Earth Science Review

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  1. Earth Science Review Will you be ready or will I see you in September?? again

  2. Things to bring!!! • Pen • 2 sharpened pencils • Calculator • Your Brain!

  3. Things not to Bring!!!! • Cell Phones • ipods, hpods, mp3 players etc… • Bad attitudes • Laziness

  4. Study • You are not through with this class until after exams, and then again, maybe not • 20 to 30 minutes a night

  5. Facts to Remember • Glaciers create U-shaped valleys

  6. Rivers= V-shaped valleys

  7. When the sun is highest in the sky, your shadow is shortest (noon/June 21st)

  8. Solar Eclipse occurs when moon blocks out the sun as seen from Earth (New moon phase)

  9. Water has a high Specific Heat • Which means it takes a long time and energy to increase temperature, but it also takes a long time to cool down

  10. Water’s Specific Heat is the reason why…… • Marine Climate (AREAS BY LARGE BODIES OF WATER) • Are cooler in the summer and warmer in the winter • Small temperature range

  11. Lunar Eclipse • May happen during the full moon phase when the Earth casts a shadow on the moon

  12. Be Prepared, Don’t let the Earth Science Exam be a “Heart Breaker”!

  13. High Pressure Systems • Spin Clockwise and out from center/ sinking air • Clear, cool weather • No rain or precipitation

  14. Dirt is a dirty word!! • Soil takes a long time to develop, however soil is created quicker in warm humid climates Soil is made of organic materials (humus) and pieces of weathered rock

  15. Air Pressure decreases as altitude increases!

  16. Low Pressure Systems • Spin Counterclockwise and in towards center • Storms/Bad weather rain / Rising Air cP mT

  17. The Closer air temp. is to dewpoint. Temp. the greater the chance for rain • High humidity as well 76 Convert air pressure less than 500 add a 10 in front more than 500 add a 9 in front, and last number is made a decimal.

  18. Angle of Insolation & Seasons NYS longest duration of Insolation on June 21st (summer Solstice) Shortest Dec 21st (winter solstice) 12 hrs. of day & night on March 21st & Sept 21st (equinox)

  19. Earthquakes & Volcanoes occur at Plate Boundaries San Andres Fault Ring of Fire

  20. Metamorphism (heat and/or pressure) As Heat & pressure are increased the rock will change Phyllite changes to Schist Shale changes to Slate Slate changes to Phyllite Schist changes to Gneiss If life gives you schist, make gneiss of it!

  21. Outside Curve Faster (erosion)Inside Curve Slower (deposition) Cutbank – erosional feature Sandbar – depositional feature

  22. Cold Dry Air Comes From Canada(Just like Justin Bieber) cP – continental Polar Responsible for cold fronts

  23. Convergent Boundary – ocean crust (dense) meets continental (less dense) Volcanoes Ocean Trench Subduction Melting

  24. Convection Currents in the Upper Mantle cause Plate Movement Redlines – new crust Yellow lines – older crust Midocean Ridge

  25. Contour Lines Highest Possible Elevation of x = 69 When close together contour lines indicates a steep slope When far apart, contour lines indicate a gentle slope The of profile hills are rounded off, but do not touch the next contour line

  26. Water Expands When it Freezes Responsible for a lot of weathering in cold moist climate like NYS (potholes)

  27. Planetary Winds Belts Winds do not move straight because of the Coriolis Effect NYS is affected by the South West winds. That’s why our weather usually moves in that direction. Dry Low Pressure Wet

  28. Horizontal Sorting – larger particles get deposited first, then smaller ones when a stream meets a lake or ocean

  29. Ocean Tides Spring Tides (really high and low tides) Neap Tides (not so high and low tides)

  30. Internal Arrangement of a mineral’s atoms are responsible for hardness, cleavage and streak.

  31. The altitude of Polaris above the horizon equals degrees North latitude!

  32. Groundwater Zone of Aeration – pore spaces between particles are filled w/ air Zone of Saturation – pore spaces are filled with water Water Table Capillarity- when water goes up (small particles)l

  33. Mid-Atlantic Ridge Divergent Boundary

  34. Time Zones 15 Degrees of Longitude Add 1 hr. for every 15 degrees East Subtract 1 hr. for every 15 degrees West

  35. Latitude and Longitude D= 60 N 60 E B= 25 S 55 W

  36. Latitude Here = 66.5 Degrees North

  37. Summer Solstice June 21st- N. Hemisphere Tilted Towards Sun Direct Rays @ 23.5 N – Tropic of Cancer

  38. Sun’s Path Across the Sky Summer Path Fall / Spring Path Winter Path

  39. Older Rock Layers are at the Bottom Sequence of Rock Layers – C, B, A, D D- igneous intrusion happened last since it goes through all layers Igneous Intrusion would scorch A sandstone into quartzite B shale into slate Limestone into marble

  40. Seasons Spring March 21st Summer June 21st Winter Dec 21st Fall Sept 21st

  41. Equinox –March 21st & Sept. 21st Direct Rays fall on the equator twice a year. Everywhere on Earth gets 12 hr. of day & night.

  42. Precambrain Time is as old school as Rob Base88% of Earth’s 4.6 Billion year Existance Precambrian Time Humans on Earth

  43. Incoming Insolation in the form short-wave Ultraviolet radiation (strong & gets through) Infrared radiation – long waves and weaker

  44. Seasons are opposite in Southern Hemisphere Winter in S. Hemisphere Summer in S. Hemisphere

  45. Weather Instruments Psychrometer - humidity Barometer – Air Pressure Thermometer - temperature Anemometer – wind speed

  46. Glaciers leave behind unsorted sediments (mixture of sizes)

  47. Close isobars on weather indicate fast wind speed Windy

  48. Revolution vs. Rotation 15 degrees per hour 1 degree per day

  49. More Water in Stream means faster Velocity (speed)

  50. Rivers flow opposite way contour lines bend Stream flows in a SE direction here