Unit 9 Development Infancy and Childhood Justin Bieber ft. Ludacris http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kffacxfA7G4
3 Main Debates: 1. Nature vs. Nurture: How do genetic inheritance (nature) and experience (nurture) influence our development? blog.lib.umn.edu
2. Continuity vs. Discontinuity (Stages) Is development a gradual, continuous process like riding an escalator, or does it proceed through the sequence of separate states like climbing rungs on a ladder?
Stability vs. Change: Do our early personality traits persist through life, or do we become different persons as we age?
Research Methods Cross-Sectional Studies Longitudinal Studies One group of people studied over a period of time. • Participants of different ages studied at the same time.
In the Womb National Geographic in the womb 3 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N4wihBifT7s
Prenatal Development • Conception begins with the drop of an egg and the release of about 200 million sperm. • The sperm seeks out the egg and attempts to penetrate the eggs surface.
Once the sperm penetrates the egg- we have a fertilized egg called…….. The Zygote The first stage of prenatal development. Lasts about two weeks and consists of rapid cell division.
Zygotes • Less than half of all zygotes survive first two weeks. • About 10 days after conception, the zygote will attach itself to the uterine wall. • The outer part of the zygote becomes the placenta (which filters nutrients).
After two weeks, the zygote develops into an…. Embryo • Lasts about 6 weeks. • Heart begins to beat and the organs begin to develop.
Fetus • By nine weeks we have a… • The fetus by about the 6th month, the stomach and other organs have formed enough to survive outside of mother. • At this time the baby can hear (and recognize) sounds and respond to light.
Teratogens • Chemical agents that can harm the prenatal environment. • Alcohol (FAS) • Other STDs can harm the baby….. • HIV • Herpes • Genital Warts
Drug Addicted Babies Struggles of Drug Addicted Babies video from Answers com Videos http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=80oJMZHjQTA
The competent Newborn One way to recognize the difference between sleeping and habituating is to watch your child's behavior when he is awake. A baby who has been asleep wakes spontaneously and is responsive, alert, and refreshed. But a child who has been habituating wakes and is soon fussy and irritable - he is exhausted rather than rested. Forced to protect himself from too much noise, light, activity, or handling, the habituating baby goes into his cocoon because he is hoping you will get the message and put him some where he will be more comfortable. Habituation: a decrease in responding with repeated stimulation.
Reflexes:automatic(means involuntary) responses Babinski Reaction- Foot is rubbed against and the rest of the toes fan out. Moro Reflex- Baby feels like it is falling and arms and legs go out in search of something to hang onto. Rooting Reflex- if the baby is touched at the end of the mouth, the baby still turn and begin to suck. Grasping Reflex- Touch a babies hand it will close. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gyVLD0hl0XY
Some of these slides have been adapted from appsychology.com http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ocjWFGIQr3s
Visual Cliff A device used to determine if babies have depth perception. gynomite.wordpress.com
Developmental Psychology Early Childhood Parallel play Cooperative play Solitary play
Attachment Theories the bond between a caregiver and child has a significant impact on a child's development on both a social and emotional level Attachmentrefers to an emotional connection
Mary Ainsworth Attachment Theory Ainsworth had a parent drop off their child with a stranger and then observed how the child reacted. She came up with Three distinctive attachments: 1. Secure Attachment- Just like it sounds the child is secure that mom is coming back and happy to see her when she does. 2. Avoidant Attachment -when mom comes back the child avoids them. 3. Anxious Attachment they are anxious in their surroundings . abc-counselling.com
Attachment and Harry Potter Harry would be an example of having an avoidant attachment. Although he had loving parents when he was an infant, he mainly experienced psychological abuse from his neglectful Aunt and Uncle while growing up. As shown in the book, he had a hard time reaching out toward others in the beginning of his first year and had problems with expressing his feelings toward girls like Cho Chang and Ginny Weasley abc-counselling.com
Attachment and Harry Potter Hermione is known for having supportive and understanding parents. This positive relationship is the epitome of a secure bond, which is shown through her high self-esteem and her willingness to develop a relationship with Viktor Krum in the Goblet of Fire. abc-counselling.com
Attachment and Harry Potter Ron, should show characteristics of an anxious attachment style. With all his siblings, Ron probably didn't' get all the attention he wanted because his parents had their hands full. However, instead of being anxious and worried about his love life, he felt uncomfortable with his relationship with Lavender Brown. abc-counselling.com
Konrad Lorenz Attachment Attachment is very important for infants to develop. Konrad Lorenz observed baby geese. When they were hatched the formed an attachment with the first thing they saw which was Konrad. This is called imprinting. Critical Period: an optimal period when certain events must take place to facilitate proper development. allposters.com dabase.org http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2UIU9XH-mUI&feature=related
By the way psychology’s definition of imprinting is not the same as the one from Twilight!! twilightlovers.net
Harry Harlow Attachment theory Harry Harlow did research on Rhesus monkeys. Inhumane research. He did however, show that monkeys just like babies need touch to form attachments. They needed that contact comfort. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hsA5Sec6dAI
Daycare High quality daycare has shown no detrimental effects on children over the age of two. • There is a difference with how children turn out between high and low quality.
Deprivation of Attachment Can become withdrawn, scared and sometimes speechless like Genie. • Harlow’s monkeys would either cower in fright or act extremely aggressive. Many could not mate and if they could, the mothers were unresponsive parents. • Is there a connection between crime and lack of childhood attachment? • Discussion Time…. Apsychology.com
Stage Theorists These psychologists believe that we travel from stage to stage throughout our lifetimes. geekweek.com from appsychology.com
from appsychology.com Sigmund Freud Psychosexual Stage Sigmund Freud developed the 5 Stages of Psychosexual Development Freud related most things to our unconscious and our sexual drive or libido. He said if you get stalled at any of the stages you might have problems later in life.
Freud’sPsychosexual Stages http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cvOoYX45G_0&feature=related
from appsychology.com Stage 1: Oral Stage Seek pleasure through out mouths. Babies put everything in their mouths (0-2). People fixated in this stage tend to overeat, smoke or have a childhood dependence on things.
from appsychology.com Stage 2: Anal Stage Develops during toilet training (2-4). Libido is focused on controlling waste and expelling waste. A person fixated may become overly controlling (retentive) or out of control (expulsive).
from appsychology.com Stage 3: Phallic Stage Children first recognize their gender (4-7). Causes conflict in families with the Oedipus and ElectraComplexes. Fixation can cause later problems in relationships.
from appsychology.com Stage 4: Latency Stage Libido is hidden (7-11). Cooties stage. Freud believed that fixation in this stage could lead to sexual issues.
from appsychology.com Stage 5: Genital Stage Libido is focused on their genitals (12-death). Freud thought fixation in this stage is normal. sweetslyrics.com
Okay, Come up with the best mnemonic device for the stages….3, 2, 1 GO…
from appsychology.com Cognitive Development Cognitive deals with memory, thinking and language . Jean Piaget is one of the founders of Cognitive development and he looked at how children think. Early schools of thought were that kids were stupid versions of adults. Jean Piaget said, “hey they just think differently” There are 4 Stages. downstream-parenting.com
Terms that go With Piaget’s cognitive development • 1. Object Permanence: The understanding that the an object exists even if they can not see it. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nwXd7WyWNHY • 2. Egocentric: cannot look at the world through anyone’s eyes but their own. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OinqFgsIbh0 3. Conservation refers to the idea that a quantity remains the same despite changes in appearance and is part of logical thinking. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7gUY8GM7rco
Right now in your head, picture a model. Schemas Children view the world through schemas (as do adults for the most part). Schemas are ways we interpret the world around us. It is basically what you picture in your head when you think of anything. These 3 probably fit into your concept (schema) of a model. But does this one?
AssimilationIncorporating new experiences into existing schemas. If I teach my 3 year that an animal with 4 legs and a tail is a dog…. What schema would you assimilate this into? smileluver38.webs.com What would he call this? thundafunda.com dellone2one.com
Assimilation in High School • When you first meet somebody, you will assimilate them into a schema that you already have. • If you see two guys dressed like this, what schema would you assimilate them into? • Would you always be right?
Accommodation • Changing an existing schema to adopt to new information. If I tell someone from the mid-west to picture their schema of the Bronx they may talk about the ghetto areas. But if I showed them other areas of the Bronx, they would be forced to accommodate (change) their schema to incorporate their new information.
Schema – Freshmen are stupid and goofy. • Scenario – A ninth-grader in your Spanish III class gives an eloquent presentation of the Spanish-American War. • If you assimilate, you might think… • If you accommodate, you might think…
Schema – My parents don’t know what it is like to be a teenager. • Scenario – Your grandmother tells you a story about your mother’s rebellious teenage years. • If you assimilate, you might think… • If you accommodate, you might think …
Schema – Christopher Columbus was a heroic man who discovered America. • Scenario – You read an article in US History about how Columbus and other early settlers mistreated Native Americans. • If you assimilate, you might think… • If you accommodate, you might think…
Schema – I cannot relate to people of different races or ethnicities because we are so different. • Scenario – You room with someone from a different race in college and find out that you have a lot more in common than you have differences. • If you assimilate, you might think… • If you accommodate, you might think…