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Rock & Roll

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Rock & Roll

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Rock & Roll

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  1. Rock & Roll Origins, Evolution, & Modern Music

  2. “Rock ‘n’ Roll” • “Rock and roll” was black slang for having sex. • The term “rock ‘n’ roll” was used as a marketing ploy by DJ Alan Freed in the early 1950s.

  3. Origins of Rock & Roll • Two primary roots • Blues • Folk • Other influences • Gospel, rhythm & blues, jazz, and country • It’s not “black” or “white” music but an energetic mixture of the two

  4. Origins of Rock & Roll • Initial appeal was to white, middle class teens. • Parents of these teens responded negatively. • “Race music” was censored as being too rebellious, sexual, and anti-social.

  5. Characteristics of Rock & Roll • High dynamic level of sound • Loud • Fast and hard rhythms • Conversational lyrics • Social messages What movie?

  6. Blues Influences • Origins – Slave responsorials • Songs about hard work or hard lives • 3 Line Verse • West Africa • Lead Belly • Huddie Ledbetter

  7. Lead BellyTake this Hammer

  8. West African Influences • Guttural • Call & Response • Talking • Improvisation • Sexuality Sam Cooke

  9. Sam CookeNothing Can Change This Love Radio Version Live in Harlem Square

  10. 1950s • Favorable economic times during the post-war era allowed rock ‘n’ roll to flourish • Leo Fender invented the electric guitar • Dawn of teenage culture defined by purchasing power

  11. Major Label Recording Practices in the 1950s • Rerecord minor hits released by small companies. • Turn them into smash hits by making them less daring and gearing them towards white middle America. Frank Sinatra

  12. 1950s • Rock and Roll was the expression of youth culture • Dancing • Sexual freedom • Rebellion against parents and cultural norms The Coasters – Yakety Yak

  13. Small Labels Strike Back with “Unique” Talent • Chuck Berry • Little Richard

  14. Chuck BerryJohnny B. Goode

  15. Elvis Presley • In 1952, Sam Phillips, of Sun Records, started a search for a “white man who sounds like Howlin’ Wolf” • In 1954, he found Elvis

  16. Elvis PresleyThat’s Alright Mama

  17. Elvis on the Billboard Charts Most Hot 100 Entries • Glee Cast – 137 • Elvis – 108 • James Brown – 91 Most Top 10 Singles • Madonna – 37 • Elvis – 36 • The Beatles – 29 Most Top 40 Hits • Elvis – 104 • Elton John – 56 • The Beatles - 51 Most #1 Hits • The Beatles – 20 • Mariah Carey – 18 • Elvis - 17

  18. Major Labels Strike Back Dick Clark’s American Bandstand

  19. 1960s • Massive changes to American culture • The Baby Boomers • Civil Rights Movement • Cuban Missile Crisis • Women’s Movement • Vietnam • Rock no longer reflected social changes… it influenced them

  20. 1960s • Counterculture • Hallucinogenic drugs • LSD • Psychedelic Experiments • Communal living • Summer of Love - 1967 • Monterey Pop Festival - 1967 • Woodstock - 1969

  21. 1960s - Folk music called for social changes • Music designed to be performed by the masses • Social messages • Woody Guthrie – 30s & 40s • Pete Seeger – 50s • Bob Dylan – 60s

  22. Pete SeegerWaist Deep In The Big Muddy

  23. 1960s – Folk • Bob Dylan • Blowin’ in the Wind • “Freedom songs” in support of civil rights movement • Played at Dr. King’s March in 1963

  24. British Invasion • The Beatles • The Who • The Rolling Stones

  25. The Ed Sullivan Show The Beatles The Rolling Stones

  26. 1960s – Soul • Rock became “white” so black pop music picked a new name • Later soul became funk • Mix of Gospel and R&B • James Brown • Aretha Franklin

  27. Aretha FranklinRespect

  28. 1960s Blues Revisited • Driven by electric guitar • Urban sound • Improvisation • Eric Clapton • The Yardbirds • Cream • Derek and the Dominoes • The Doors

  29. CreamCrossroads

  30. 1960sJazz Revisited • Van Morrison • Steve Winwood • Chicago

  31. Van MorrisonMoondance

  32. 1960s San Francisco Scene • Berkley’s “free speech movement” • Hippies • Haight-Ashbury • Psychedelic drugs • The Grateful Dead • Jimi Hendrix

  33. Jimi HendrixHey Joe

  34. 1970s • The 1970s saw worsening economic conditions (especially in England). • Young people who earlier believed that rock and roll music could be used to fight racism and war became less confident and more introspective. • Rock became part of American culture instead of a force to change it.

  35. 1970sSoft Rock • James Taylor • Simon & Garfunkel • Elton John • Crosby Still & Nash (& Young)

  36. 1970s Soft Rock Elton John Your Song Simon & Garfunkel The Sound of Silence

  37. 1970s – Different Directions • The majority of Americans were listening to folk and soft rock • As in art, some musicians went in a new direction • Hard rock • Art/Progressive rock • Glam rock • Funk • Disco • Punk

  38. 1970s Hard RockLed Zeppelin • “Borrowed” lyrics and tunes from old blues songs • Very loud songs • Their fourth album, Led Zeppelin IV (1971), is the third highest selling album in US history

  39. Led ZeppelinImmigrant Song

  40. 1970sArt Rock (Progressive Rock) • Yes • Genesis • Rush • Pink Floyd • Darkside of the Moon – Third in world album sales • The Wall – Fourth in US album sales • Usually trained in classical or jazz music • Embraced electronic music • Very long songs

  41. Pink FloydMedley from Dark Side of the Moon

  42. 1970SGlam Rock • David Bowie • Alice Cooper • KISS

  43. David BowieZiggy Stardust

  44. 1970sFunk • Music from Motown was too optimistic for many young blacks • New vision of African-American urban life • Sly and the Family Stone • Isaac Hayes • James Brown • George Clinton (Funkadelic)

  45. James BrownI’m Black and I’m Proud

  46. 1970sDisco • Dance music that brought whites and blacks together • Peaked in 1977 with Saturday Night Fever • Soundtrack still in top 25 for US album sales

  47. 1970sDisco • Bee Gees • Village People • Donna Summers

  48. Bee GeesStayin’ Alive

  49. 1970sPunk • Emerged in the UK during disco’s peak • Simple lyrics and songs performed quickly and loudly • Messages spoke out against established authority • Sex Pistols • The Clash • Ramones

  50. Sex PistolsAnarchy in the UK