Brand name and Brand image between Linguistics and Marketing Prof. Dr. Paola Cotticelli-Kurras Dott.ssa Vania Vigolo Dott. Alfredo Trovato
1. Conceptual Framework Since the end of the ’70s, several studies have analysed the effective role of language in the creation of brand-names. Current works suggest that these linguistic features affect how consumers perceive and also respond to various marketing stimuli (i.e. advertising or brand names). The creation of a good brand name may be accomplished by several devices, concerning the interaction between what the brand “means” as well as what the brand “designates” (Robertson 1989: 66).
1.1. A study of Italian brand naming:the linguistic analysis Cotticelli-Kurras (2007) (Die Entwicklung der hybriden Wortschöpfungen bei den italienischen Markennamen) Cotticelli-Kurras 2009 (La struttura morfologica dei marchionimi italiani nel XX secolo [fino agli anni ‘80]) Cotticelli-Kurras forthcoming (Assoziationen italienischer Markennamen im 20. Jahrhundert) Ronneberger-Sibold 2009 (Die morphologische Struktur deutscher Markennamen: diachrone Entwicklungen im Laufe des 20. Jahrhunderts) Ronneberger-Sibold forthcoming (Markennamen als (Zerr-)Spiegel gesellschaftlichen Wertewandels in der ersten Hälfte des 20. Jahrhunderts) Zilg (2006) (Markennamen im italienischen Lebensmittelmarkt)
1.2. The method The first phase of the work implies the preliminary individuation of the linguistic dimensions involved in the analysis of the data. Our questions: 1.Which are the linguistic strategies employed in order to show how Lush Italy “worked” to present his products? 2.What are the effects and from which linguistic levels does the message reach the consumers?
1.3. The case-study “10 ANNI INSIEME” EDIZIONE SPECIALE [Special edition 1999-2009]
1.3.1. The corpus The Corpus: 251 product names 168 Italian names; 76 foreign names; 7 hybrid forms.
1.3.2. Categoriesofproduct names Ballistiche Spumanti Coccole Saponi Gel Doccia Burroni Gelatine Cazzilli Massaggi Brillantini Balsami corpo Creme corpo Creme viso Tonici Maschere Fresche Balsami Labbra Fumantine Detergenti Profumini Shampoo solidi /liquidi Balsami Trattamenti Styling Polverine Deodoranti Regali Pensierini Cappelliere
2. Linguistic Analysis of the Corpus • 4 Linguistic levels: • Phonetic analysis; • Morphological analysis; • Lexical analysis; • Semantic analysis.
2.1. Phonetic level Strawberry fields for ever becomes Strawberry feels for ever [Massage Bar ]
2.1.1. Phonetic Level Viva Las Vegas becomes Viva Lush Vegas [Gift Box]
2.1.2. Phonetic Level The name of Nilla Pizzi,a famous singer in post-Second-World-War Italy is hidden in the product name Vanilla Pizzi [Dusting Powder].
2.1.3. Phonetic Level The title of Luciano Ligabue's song Bambolina e Barracuda “Little doll and Barracuda” becomes Fragolina e Barracuda “Strawberry and barracuda” [Shower Gel].
2.1.4. Phonetic Level: To sum up Strategies: Simple substitution of one letter in the name, often as a minimal pair, but with great associative value to the reference world or common knowledge in both Italian and foreign names.
2.2. Morphological level Existing word forms: Baciami [Lip Balm] “Kiss me!”; Mordimi[Lip Balm] “Bite me!”; Sfiorami[Lip Balm] “Touch me!”; Angioletto[Bath Bomb] “Baby angel”; Diavoletto [Bath Bomb] “Baby devil”.
2.2.1. Morphological level New forms: M’assaggiami [Massage Bar] this is massaggiami, i.e. ‘massage me’, but it is written m(a) assaggia-mi, i.e. ‘but taste me’. Aromanticaand Aromantico[Deodorants] are a variation from Italian aromatico, i.e. aromatic, but they suggest a romantic note! Belli Capelli [Hair Treatment] is a rhyme, but a wrong Italian form; correctly it should be bei capelli in the attributive position of the adjective (note, predicative position: i capelli sono belli)
2.2.2. Morphological Level: To sum up From a morphological point of view, the strategies of naming show the use of word plays, which involve existing words or sentences to express the desired effects and benefits of the products.
2.3.1. Lexical level 251 product names: 168 Italian names, 7 mixed forms (hybrid), 58 English names, 4 Spanish names, 3 Latin names, 2 French names, 9 names from other languages.
22.214.171.124. English names Under the English 58 names we find: - Personal names: Candy Candy [Soap], Fred [Soap], Marilyn [Hair Treatment], - Names from movies, songs and book titles: Stardust [Bath Bomb], Pretty Woman [Bubble Bar], Blade Runner [Shaving Cream], Compounds Sexxx Bomb[Bath Bomb], Adjectival phrases: - Green Day [Bubble Bath], Prepositional phrases: - Strawberry feels for ever [Massage Bar],
126.96.36.199. Hybrid /mixed names Only 7 names belong to this category; most of them show a consistent language mixture in the structure of adjectival phrases : Fresh Farmacy[Cleanser], Karma Kream [Body Cream], Questione di Peeling[Scrubbing], Toda la Noce [Massage Bar], Vellutata Dream[Smoothie Shower Soap], Vaporosa Candy [Dusting Powder], Macho Man[Gift Box].
188.8.131.52. Other Languages - Nirvana [Face Cream], - Mata Hari [Bubble Bar], - Shangri La [Face Cream], - Aisha [Face Mask], - Gurugu [Body Cream], - Geisha [Cleanser]
184.108.40.206. Spanish names Cocoloco [Soap]; Lolita [Massage Bar]; Copacabana [Body Cream]; One sentence: Besame mucho [Massage Bar]
220.127.116.11. French names 2 instances a film title: Chocolat [Face Mask]; a geographical name: Mont Blanc [Bath Melt].
18.104.22.168. Latin names Supernova [Bath Bomb], used as special terminology for a type of star; Dulcis in Fundo [Body Cream], a typical formulaic phrase often used in Italian to express ‘Finally…’; Imperialis [Body Cream], for a ‘high-class’ product.
22.214.171.124. Lexical Level: To sum up Lush-Italy employs several foreign languages (English, French, Spanish) in the naming process, aiming to express often exotic and exciting aspects, especially from other countries, They create new names, different from those in English, They often use often names of very well known persons.
2.4. Semantic Level Connotative Meaning Denotative Meaning Key attributes Name Product Category Consumer
2.4.1. Transferring product names across borders Foreign Country Country of Origin Loss of source meaning Acquisition of new meaning
2.4.2. Semantic Level In the English Lush’s web-catalogue the product name You snap the whip [Body Scrub] is described as follows: “is a term maybe more familiar to a sadomasochist, so it fits with the hard-core, pleasure/pain image”. The same product in the Italian line is named Magia Nera“Black Magic”: The sexual reference is completely lost in the Italian context. In this case, only the “enchanting/magic” effect of the scrubbing product has been underlined.
2.4.3. Semantic Level The English lemon soap Bohemian, in relation to marginalized and impoverished artists or musicians, who “didn't afford a hot bath very often” corresponds to the Italian product name Conosci la Terra Dove i Limoni Profumano? “Knowest thou the land where the lemon trees bloom?” (Goethe)
2.4.4. Names from everyday modern life: cinemas, songs, senses Italian Name Singer (Year) Product Original English Name Ricominciamo “Let’s start again!” A. Pappalardo (1979) [Massage Bar] Heavanilli (Heaven + Vanilla) Splendido Splendente “Splendid Shining” D. Rettore (1979) [Massage Bar] Shimmy Shimmy (a class of modern dance) Ma che bontà! Ma che bontà! “What a taste! What a taste!” Mina (1977) [Butter Cream] Heavenly bodies Buonanotte Fiorellino “Goodnight little flower!” F. De Gregori (1975) [Bubble Bar] Amandopondo (nonsense)
2.4.5. Movie titles in the naming process Italian Name Director (Year) Product Original English Name Paradiso all’Improvviso “Paradise suddenly” Pieraccioni (2003) [Moisturiser] Paradise regained Ti spezio in due “I break you” from Rocky IV Stallone (1985) [Massage Bar] Wicky Magic Muscle La febbre del Sabato sera “Saturday night Fever” Badham (1977) [Body Cream] Something wicked A qualcuno piace caldo “Some like it hot” Wilder (1959) [Soap] Spice curls Soap Atollo 13 < Apollo 13 “Apollo 13” Howard (1995) [Shower Gel] Rub Rub Rub! Il Signore dei Granelli < Il Signore degli Anelli “The Lord of the Rings” Jackson (2002) [Soap] Porridge Soap Era glaciale “Ice Age” Cartoon Movie Wilson (2002) [Soap] Ice Blue
2.4.6. “English” names of Italian products compared English Names in Italy Product Original Names in England Peach and Love [Massage Bar] Each Peach I love me [Massage Bar] Soft Coeur Shining [Hair Conditioner] Veganese Fred [Soap] Demon in the Dark Dorian Gray [Liquid Shampoo] Daddyo Thank God it’s Friday [Bath Bomb] Avobath Thank God it’s Big [Bath Bomb] AvoBigBath
2.4.7. Semantic Level: To sum up The chosen names embody social and cultural elements, which bring to mind some key attributes encoded by the advertisers. The semantic referent of the product name changes in relation to the cultural and behavioural differences between countries. The names testify to the great degree of linguistic work behind the Italian Lush names
3. Marketing approach:What king of brand image does Lush try to convey? What is a brand? What does brand image consist of? Lush case study: communication strategies for the creation of brand image
3.1 What is a brand? “A name, term, design, symbol, or any other feature that identifies one seller's good or service as distinct from those of other sellers. The legal term for brand is trademark. A brand may identify one item, a family of items, or all items of that seller” American Marketing Association
3.2 Brand image “The perception of a brand in the minds of persons. The brand image is a mirror reflection … of the brand personality or product being. It is what people believe about a brand, their thoughts, feelings, expectations”. American Marketing Association
Keller, 1993; Aaker, 1992 BRAND IMAGE BRAND ASSOCIATIONS Country of origin Communication Brand name
3.3 A wider definition of brand “A brand is a customer experience represented by a collection of images and ideas” American Marketing Association
3.4 CASE STUDY: LUSHA MANAGERIAL APPROACH • Founded in Poole (UK) in 1995 • Beauty concept • Natural and environmental principles “beauty delis” hand-made, natural and fresh products • No testing on animals • International dimension (510 stores worlwide) • Products have names that are likely to make you smile
3.4.2 Lush communication • NOT ONLY ADVERTISING! • WEB SITE • CATALOGUE • POINT OF PURCHASE
3.4.3. Lush Times: the catalogue • Suggestions on how to use the products and when EXPERIENCE DIMENSION e.g. “Do you ever overdo it a bit and don’t really want to get up in the morning? Then keep these in stock” (Emotionbmbs)
3.4.4. On the label • INGREDIENTS (what fresh organic fruits and vegetables and essential oils go into each product) • WHO MADE IT! Crafstmanship approach
Wandering around Lush…. is a “kid-in-a-candy-store” feeling “HEDONIC CONSUMPTION”
3.5.1 The point of purchase concept • “cosmetic grocery”, “food retailer” • soap is carved up on butchers’blocks, priced by weight, wrapped in greaseproof paper and sold with “best before” dates; • market-type display of soaps in chunks of different sizes, like a vegetable market, and you can slice off the amount you want
3.5.2. To package or not to package? • No packaging “we prefer to spend our money on the ingredients” SENSORY STIMULI
3.6 Lush brand image: associations aroused by SENSORY DIMENSION: smell, sight, but also hearing and touch, references to taste) “HEDONIC CONSUMPTION” DIMENSION (Holbrook, Hirschman, 1982) EXPERIENTIAL DIMENSION, both within and outside the shop (Pine, Gilmore, 1999; Schmitt, 1999) AMUSEMENT DIMENSION(“brand names should make you smile” the 6th sense: the sense of humour)
3.7 Marketing considerations on the purchasing process • Price is higher than for other brands in the same product category • Impulse purchase (unplanned or spontaneous) and gifts • Sensory dimensions is lost in the website/catalogue selling
4. Conclusions Lush Italy worked hard to create the Italian product names Italian is the most-employed language; Language strategies are very simple but successful; Phonetic effects and morphological structures play with specific associations and suggest other concepts; The associations stimulated by the brand names come from everyday life, especially from cinema, songs, common knowledge The phonetic level suggests a sensory experience The semantic level conveys visual associations (images from films, songs etc.) dreamworld dimension