The Young Republic 1816-1848
“Era of Good Feelings” • A strong sense of national pride swept the country after the War of 1812 • Period named the “Era of Good Feelings” • Through Monroe’s presidency • In the last 2 years, many programs were launched to bind the nation together • Only 1 political party remained – the Republicans, so there was less arguing and disagreement
National Bank • Republicans had previously opposed it • No national bank to regulate currency • Was a problem during the war • Republicans changed their minds • Bill introduced proposing a Second bank of the United States • Bill passed in 1816 • Would issue notes that would serve as national currency and regulate state banks.
Economy after War of 1812 • British goods flowed in and it hurt American manufacturers • Tariff of 1816 • Protective tariff • Taxed imports to drive up their prices • Road and canal construction also began (despite Monroe vetoing a bill about it) • Funded by states and private businesses • Increased trade
Judicial Nationalism • Continued to establish dominance of federal government over states • McCulloch v. Maryland • Maryland attempted to tax the national bank • SC first ruled on if bank was constitutional, SC said “Yes!” • “Necessary and proper clause” made it constitutional • MD could not tax federal bank • Gibbons v. Ogden • Company had monopoly over steamboat traffic in NY, tried to expand to NJ • Gave federal government control over interstate commerce
Diplomacy • “The art and practice of conducting negotiations between nations” • Spain and Florida • Jackson invaded Florida due to Seminole raids • Took care of Seminoles and then removed Spanish governor from power • Spain mad and demanded that Jackson be punished • We justified it by saying the Spain was not controlling Florida so someone had to do it • Adams-Onis Treaty – Spain gave us Florida
Diplomacy – Monroe Doctrine • Many European countries has a growing presence in North America/Latin America and there were problems (rebellions, etc.) • Monroe declared that: • The North American continent…“Henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European power.”
Transportation Revolution • Erie Canal (New York) • National Road (east-to-west road) • Steamboats • Rivers were more efficient and faster than roads (remember – there were no cars yet) • But upstream travel hard, especially for heavy boats • Steamboat invented by Robert Fulton in 1807 changed everything • Railroad developed on early 1800s • Dangerous, uncomfortable, dirty and ugly at first and NOT popular • But advantages became apparent – faster than wagons and stagecoaches and they could go wherever track was laid
Industry and Free Enterprise • Industry: systematic labor especially for some useful purpose or the creation of something of value • Industrial Revolution began (in Europe first) • Growth of factories • Free enterprise system • freedom of private business to organize and operate for profit in a competitive system without interference by government beyond regulation necessary to protect public interest and keep the national economy in balance
Industry and Free Enterprise • Free enterprise encouraged industry • Companies in competition with each other always tried to have the upper hand, and developed new technologies to produce cheaper goods that they could transport more quickly • States began to encourage industrialization • Industrialization started in the Northeast • Could not use British ideas (illegal), but some took a chance and stole it anyway!
Industry and Textiles • Francis C. Lowell opened a series of mills that took raw cotton fiber into cotton thread (idea stolen from England) • Mass production of cotton • Soon there were mills all over New England • Thousands of workers • Mostly women and children • Low wages
Whitney and the Cotton Gin and more! • Forever changes the South and industry • Invented the cotton gin • A machine that separates the seeds, hulls, and foreign material from cotton • Interchangeable parts • These are parts which are designed to fit in any device of the same type, rather than being designed for a specific device • Revolutionized industry and paved the way for the assembly line
Communication and Morse • Samuel F.B. Morse • Telegraph • Way to send messages • Taped a code to communicate • Newspapers began to use it for speedy transmission of the news
Urbanization • Urban = city • People began to move to cities • Spurred by industrialization • Factories and other jobs were in the city • So…people began to move to where the jobs were
Birth of Unions • As factories grew, # of factory workers grew • 1.3 million by 1860 • Low wages, horrid conditions • Labor unions started • Employers refused to recognize them • Strikes began – made employers take notice • At first courts ruled against them, saying that it interfered with free enterprise • But support would change – we will get to this later!
Cotton, Slavery and the South • The cotton gin made cotton the important crop in the South and increased dependency on slave labor • Made the plantation owner rich, but strengthened the institution of slavery • Cotton plantations popped up everywhere and more slaves were more needed than ever • Slave trade illegal by 1808, but they were reproducing in the US • 1820-1850, 1.5 millions slaves to 4 million slaves • South did not industrialize nearly as much • Concerns about slavery began and the anti-slavery movement began (we will definitely get to this in more detail later)
Nat Turner • 1831 • First slave uprising • Nat Turner believed that he was chosen by God to bring his people from slavery • Armed uprising • Killed 50 white Americans
Sectionalism • Each are of the country was very different • These differences began to cause problems (i.e. slavery) • Missouri Compromise • 1819: 22 states, 11 slave, 11 free • Missouri wanted to be a state and wanted to be a slave state • House said okay, but can’t bring new slaves in or slaves had to be freed at age 25. Senate said no. • Solution – Maine (which had been a part of Massachusetts) asked to become a state – a free state • Temporary solution? • Elections of 1824 and 1828 demonstrated growth of sectionalism
Expanded Voting Rights • Early 1800s, property ownership was removed as a requirement to vote • Suffrage was expanded • Right to vote • More and more people turned out to vote • Still not women or slaves (African-Americans)
Spoils System • Under President Jackson • Giving people jobs in the government based on political party loyalty • He fired people who worked under J.Q. Adams and replaced them with his own supporters • He defended it saying it was more democratic • Put an end to permanent, nonelected office-holding
Nullification Crisis • SC and the growing divide between North and South • SC’s economy had started to decline • They blamed it on tariffs • They paid high costs for manufactured goods from the North • Tariff of Abominations – new tariff in 1828 • SC threatened to secede from the Union
Nullification Crisis Continued • Idea of nullification was proposed, to avoid secession • States could declare a federal law null (void) • Claimed they had this right because states had created the country • Union or states? • Jackson finally stated that the union must be preserved • 1832 – a new tariff • Things exploded!
Nullification Crisis Continued • Tariffs were cut significantly, but SC was still not happy • November 1832, SC state convention declared the tariffs of 1828 and 1832 unconstitutional and nullified them • Jackson declared it treason and sent warships • Force Bill (1833) – authorized the president to use military force to enforce acts of Congress • Henry Clay pushed through a bill to lower tariffs gradually until 1842 and SC repealed its nullification. • A temporary solution? (Again)
Native Americans • Jackson planned to move all Native Americans to the Great Plains • Most Americans believed the great plains to be a wasteland that we would never need nor would it be settled • Moving them there would end the conflicts • Indian Removal Act – 1830 – Congress provided money for relocating Native Americans • The Cherokee (who has assimilated) sued and won • Jackson ignored the SC decision and violence erupted • They were moved anyway – “Trail of Tears”
Jackson and the National Bank • Jackson purposely destroyed the national bank • Paper money that could be turned in for “hard money” – gold or silver • But banks were lending more than they had in “hard money” • Bank of the US collected bank notes and asked states to redeem them for gold or silver • So…it limited how much state banks were willing to loan, which hurt western settlers who relied on the banks for credit • Congress passed a bill to extend the charter of the national bank • Jackson vetoed it – no more national bank – he deemed it unconstitutional
Immigration • New wave of immigrants to the US • Germans and Irish • Nativism was born • Discrimination against immigrants • Nativism was hostility towards the newcomers • New political party – “Know-Nothings” • Like “Fight Club” • Membership requirements were secret and when asked they were to answer that they knew nothing
Reform! Reform! Reform! • Spurred by Second Great Awakening • Reform movement was born • Tried to tackle problems in American society – from work conditions, alcohol, prison, education, women’s rights and slavery • Dorothea Dix – care of the mentally ill • Temperance Movement – alcohol caused too many problems – get rid of it • Horace Mann – education reforms • Seneca Falls – women’s suffrage – “Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions.” • Abolition movement grew – by leaps and bounds
Abolition! • Demand for an immediate end to slavery • Several ideas on how to do it • Gradualism – end it gradually, compensate slaveholders for their losses, give Southern economy time to adjust • Colonization – ending slavery would not end racism, send them back to Africa, lots of support but not very realistic due to cost • Abolition – free them immediately without gradual measures or compensation • Slavery was evil and a sin and the country needed to repent for it
Abolition Continued • People and terms to know: • William Lloyd Garrison: anti-slavery newspaper, The Liberator • Frederick Douglas: escaped slave, published a newspaper • Sojourner Truth: Freed when NY abolished slavery in 1827, delivered speeches
Manifest Destiny • The idea that is was the destiny of the US to “go west.” • God gave us the entire continent and we needed to move into it! • So…Americans started to move west
Opening Texas • Mexico owned Texas • They invited Americans to settle there as long as they adopted local customs, obey laws, and become Catholics • Mexico offered free land to Americans who came to settle there • Assumed Americans would accept their conditions, but they did not
Darned Americans • Americans rejected the Mexican ways • In turn, Mexicans distrusted Americans • Rebellions and disputes began • Mexicans believed there was an American plot to acquire TX • Borders were closed, Americans were banned from importing slaves, and imports were taxed • Settlers were MAD!
Texas Goes to War! • Two conventions attempted to solve the issues • Negotiations stalled • Stephen Austin went to Mexico City and got them to agree to most things • On way home, he was arrested for treason, imprisoned without trial • Change in Mexican leadership • Austin released and returned home • Texans quickly organized an army
TX War • TX declared independence on March 2, 1836 • Won most of the beginning battles • Mexican army had serious problems • Drew up Constitution based on US Constitution and protected slavery • TX – Sam Houston took command
The Alamo • Santa Anna organized a force of 6000 • Texas rebels were held up in an old abandoned Catholic mission – the Alamo • 180 rebels tried to delay Mexico’s army to give Houston more time • Rebels held of Santa Ana and his army for 13 days • Way outmanned and running out of ammunition
The Alamo and More • March 6 – Santa Anna’s army stormed the Alamo • Rebels fought for 6 hours, killed 600 of them before being overrun • More battles – Goliad and San Jacinto • San Jacinto major victory for rebels • September 1836 – Republic of Texas voted and Sam Houston was voted first president • Assumed the US would annex them, but concern about them being a slave state and risk of war with Mexico
And….War with Mexico. Inevitable? • Tensions existed between the US and Mexico • Bedate over new states • TX became a state when Oregon did (one free and one slave…again) • Fierce battle in the election of 1844 over slavery and annexation of TX • TX eventually annexed and Mexico was mad! • We had intentions about California too and that just added fuel to the fire
Mexican-American War • Invaded Mexico • Mexico fired on Americans • We twisted it and pointed out that they fired first • 3 prong military approach • Won many battles, marched to Mexico City • They refused to surrender • America gained control of Mexico City, they surrendered
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo • Peace treaty • Mexico gave up 500,000 sq miles of land in US • Rio Grande accepted as the southern border of TX • US paid Mexico 15 million and took over 3.25 if debts that Americans owed to Mexico
Manifest Destiny Realized…But • We had acquired… • All the land we got from Mexico • Oregon • We stretched from sea to shining sea! • But slavery issue still loomed… •