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Energy Flow Through Trophic Levels PowerPoint Presentation
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Energy Flow Through Trophic Levels

Energy Flow Through Trophic Levels

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Energy Flow Through Trophic Levels

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  1. Energy Flow Through Trophic Levels Biology 12(C)

  2. Energy • Originates from sun • Transferred between organisms • Leaves ecosystem as motion and heat Biotic & Abiotic Factors • Biotic factors – the living components of the environment EX: • Abiotic factors – the nonlivingcomponents of the environ EX:

  3. Autotrophs & Heterotrophs • Heterotroph – organism that must acquire energy by consuming other organisms • Autotroph – organism that is able to capture energy from the sun to make it’s own food ATP (Adenine Tri Phospate) • Organisms use chemical energy from food • Breaking down carbohydrate bonds releases energy • Stored in Bonds of (ATP) • Draw in notebook ATP

  4. Organisms survive by: • Producing food orfeeding on other organisms Flow of matter and energy: • Organisms eat each other to get energy (except plants) • Instead of saying “bear eats fish” we say “the energy in the fish is transferred to the bear” • Energy Flow Through Trophic Levels

  5. Trophic level – distinct level of feeding within ecosystem • Species at each level vary in different communities Trophic levels: • Producer • Consumer • Primary • Secondary • Tertiary (or top) • Decomposer • Trophic Levels

  6. Producer – produce own food, first or lowest trophic level • Example: plants Primary consumer – first-order consumer, eats a producer • Example: grasshopper • Trophic Levels

  7. Primary consumer – first-order consumer, eats a producer • Example: grasshopper Secondary consumer –second-order consumer, eats primary consumer • Example: lizard • Trophic Levels

  8. Secondary consumer –second-order consumer, eats primary consumer • Example: lizard Tertiary consumer – third-order consumer, eats secondary consumer • Example: snake • Trophic Levels

  9. Decomposer (saprobe) – breaks down dead plant and animal matter and returns nutrients to soil • Examples: bacteria and fungi • Trophic Levels

  10. You will have a quiz in 5 minutes….STUDY!

  11. On a separate sheet of paper answer the following: • What are biotic factors and list 2 • What are abiotic factors and list 2 • What does this picture show? 4. Make a pyramid and divide it into half (a top half and a bottom half). Places the words “producer” and “consumer” into the part of the pyramid where they apply to and define each next to the word in the pyramid. • Trophic Energy Quiz 1 (10pts)

  12. Sometimes consumers are referred to by type of food they eat rather than trophic level: • Herbivore – eats only plants • Examples: deer, rabbit • Carnivore – eats only animals • Examples: lion, shark • Omnivore – eats plants and animals • Examples: bear, human • Scavenger – feed only on dead organisms • Examples: vulture, hyena • Trophic Levels

  13. Food chain – sequence of organisms feeding on one another at a lower trophic level Producer Primary Consumer Secondary Consumer • Food Chains

  14. In this food chain, which is the … Producer- 1* Primary Consumer- 2* Primary Consumer- 3* Primary Consumer- 4* Primary Consumer-

  15. Food web – network of interacting food chains • Most organisms eat more than one food type • Ecosystems usually contain more than one food chain • Complex relationships between trophic levels • Food Webs

  16. Highlight 4 different food chains and put them in order of Producer, 1 C, 2 C, 3 C, 4 C , …. • What do they have in common, different, are any organisms on two different trophic levels?

  17. You will have a quiz in 5 minutes….STUDY!

  18. On a separate sheet of paper answer the following: • Define and give an example for: - producer - herbivore - carnivore - omnivore - scavenger - decomposer 2. Copy the food web at right and label each organism as one of the above based only on the data in the food web. • Trophic Energy Quiz 2 (20pts)

  19. Which organisms are the producers? • Pond weed and algae • Which organisms are the secondary consumers? • Perch, minnow, and dragonfly • Which organisms do frogs eat? • Minnow and dragonfly Complex Food Web • Food Webs

  20. Which consumers feed on bivalves? • Sea ducks, tundra swans, and herbivorous ducks • Which consumers feed on zooplankton? • Small fish, bivalves • Food Webs

  21. Ecological pyramid – used to visualize food chains • Pyramid of energy – amount of energy in bodies of organisms at each trophic level • Pyramid of numbers – number of organisms feeding at each trophic level • Pyramid of biomass – total mass of dry, organic matter at each trophic level • Ecological Pyramids

  22. Matter and Energy cycles through the ecosystem when one organism is passed to another when eaten Matter and Energy cycles through the ecosystem when one organism is passed to another when eaten

  23. Energy decreases up the pyramid: • Grass captures sun’s energy • Rabbit obtains 10% of stored energy in grass • Snake obtains 10% of stored energy in rabbit • Eagle receives 10% of stored energy snake Pyramid of Energy • Pyramid of Energy 1 kcal 10 kcal 100 kcal 1000 kcal

  24. Numbers decrease up the pyramid: • More individual organisms at lower trophic levels • Fewer individuals at higher trophic levels Pyramid of Numbers • Pyramid of Numbers

  25. Biomass decreases up the pyramid: • Greatest biomass at producer level • Least biomass at tertiary consumer level Pyramid of Biomass Tertiary Consumer (1.5 grams/square meter) Secondary Consumer (11 grams/square meter) Primary Consumer (37 grams/square meter) • Pyramid of Biomass Decomposer 5 grams/square meter Producers 807 grams/square meter

  26. Use the 10% rule to see how much energy will get transferred! Q: If the plants start with 100J of energy how much is in all the rest of the levels? Q: If the heron received 3J of energy how much did the plant start with?

  27. Use the 10% rule to see how much energy will get transferred! Q: If the primary consumers have 676J of energy how much is in all the rest of the levels? Q: If the bass received 1 J of energy how much did the plant start with?

  28. You will have a quiz in 5 minutes….STUDY!

  29. Draw a trophic pyramid to solve each question: • If the secondary consumers have 2 J how much is in all the rest of the levels? • If the bass received 100 J of energy how much did the plant start with? • Plants start with 1005 J of energy how much is in all of the levels? • The heron received 3,500 J how much did the plant start with? • Plants started with 500 J how much did the tertiary consumer get? • Trophic Energy Quiz 3 (10pts)