Jewish American Kathy Allgood Kelly Hamby Ryan Shaddix Nikki Smith
Origin and History From Abraham to Zion
Abraham to Captivity • 1813 BC Abraham born • 1738 Abraham settles in Canaan • 1713 Isaac born • 1523 Jacob and family move to Egypt • 1313 Exodus from Egypt • 1272 Joshua leads Jews into Canaan (Later named Israel) • 930 First Temple completed • 587 Babylonian captivity begins • 587 The First Temple is destroyed.
The 2nd Temple to Dispersion • 541 First Jews return to rebuild walls of Jerusalem after Persia over throws Babylon • 538 BC – 400 AD Under Persian, Greek, then Roman Rule • 515 Temple Rebuilt (Second Temple) • 66 AD Jewish Revolt against Roman occupation • 70 Destruction of the Jewish Temple and Jerusalem • 73 The “Dispersion” Jews sold into slavery and driven from Jerusalem for almost 700 years
Jews in the America’s • 1700 Jewish Population in America approximately 250 • 1740 England grants naturalization rights to Jews in the colonies. • 1762 Although usually considered more liberal than other states, Rhode Island refuses to grant Jews Aaron Lopez and Isaac Eliezer citizenship stating "no person who is not of the Christian religion can be admitted free to this colony." • 1775-1781 American Revolution; religious freedom guaranteed. • 1788 Ratification of the U.S. Constitution means Jews may hold any federal office.
Jewish Milestones • 1823 The first American Jewish periodical, The Jew, published in New York. • 1840s The use of the word "Jew" as a verb comes into popular parlance in North America. "To Jew" means to strike a bargain or employ questionable business practices, according to this prejudicial usage. • 1841 David Levy Yulee of Florida elected to the United States Senate, the first Jew in Congress. • 1844 Lewis Charles Levin was the first Jew elected to the U.S. House of Representatives. • 1862 General Ulysses S. Grant expels Jewish civilians issues General Order No. 11 expelling the Jews "as a class" from the area under the jurisdiction of the Union army in his military department.
Jewish Milestones • 1881 Start of mass migrations of eastern European Jews. • 1891 Christian Zionist William E. Blackstone and 413 prominent Americans petition President Benjamin Harrison to support resettlement of Russian Jews in Palestine. • 1901 The Industrial Removal Office, organized by several Jewish organizations, relocate Jewish immigrants from the Lower East Side to communities across the United States. • 1903 Kishinev massacre increases Jewish exodus from Russia. • 1903-1907 500,000 Jews flee Russia, 90% go to the United States. • 1906 American Jewish Committee is founded to safeguard Jewish rights internationally. • 1914 During First World War, Russian forces in retreat drive 600,000 Jews from their homes. • 1915 Moses Alexander elected Governor of Idaho - the first Jew to win the governorship of an American state.
Jewish Milestones • 1917 The United States declared war on Germany. Approximately 250,000 Jewish soldiers (20% of whom were volunteers) served in the U.S. Army, roughly 5.7% while Jews only made up 3.25% of the general American population. • 1922 Harvard's president proposes a quota on the number of Jews admitted. After a contentious debate, he withdrew the recommendation. • 1939/1942-1945 The Nazi German Holocaust against Jews. • May 14, 1948 Declaration of Independence of the State of Israel • Between 1948 and 1951, almost 700,000 Jews immigrate to Israel, including more than two-thirds of the Jewish DPs in Europe. • President Harry S. Truman recognizes the State of Israel within its first hour of existence.
The Holocaust • The term generally used to describe the genocide of approximately six million European Jews during World War II. • A program of systematic state-sponsored extermination by Nazi Germany, under Adolf Hitler, its allies, and collaborators. • Also known as Shoah
Jewish Discrimination In America • Jews have been present in what is today the United States of America as early as the Colonial period of the 17th century, though they were small in numbers. • Anti-Jewish sentiment started around the time of the American Civil War. • Anti-Semitism continued into the first half of 1900s. Jews were discriminated against in some employment, not allowed into some social clubs and resort areas, given a quota on enrollment at colleges, and not allowed to buy certain properties.
Passover Meal • 15th day of the month of Nisan (March and April) • Removing all Chametz • Spring Cleaning • Sale of Chametz • Burning the Chametz • First of the Firstborn • Seder
Seder Meal • There are a number of foods eaten during the ritual Seder family meal partaken on the first two nights of Passover. Family customs may vary the items served at the Seder, but the following food items traditionally appear on the Seder plate • Matzoh • Maror • Charoses • Beitzah • Karpas • Zeroah • Wine
Bar and Bat Mitzvahs • Ceremony celebrating a boy or girl’s coming of age • Actually an ordinary Sabbath service in which the boy or girl participate in the first time after reaching the age of majority (13 for boys, 12 for girls) • Misconception that the ceremony changes the status from youth to adulthood • At this age, children bear the responsibiity for Jewish ritual law, tradition, ethics and are privileged to participate in all Jewish community life • The occasion usually involves a reading of the Torah and/or Haftarah portion at a Sabbat or other service • Varies in Judaism’s different denominations • Regardless of the celebration, males become entirely culpable and responsible for following Jewish law once they reach the age of 13 and females at the age of 12.
The History of Hanukkah • Festival of Lights • 8 day celebration • Commences on the 25th day of the month of Kislev (Nov/Dec) • Commemorates the victory of the Jews over the Hellenist Syrians in 165 BCE
Hanukkah Traditions • Oil & Cheese • Hanukkah Gelt • The Prayers • Shabbat Chanukah • Dreidel
The Dreidel • 4-sided spinning top • Each side has a Hebrew letter • NesGadolHayaSham/Po which means “A Great miracle happened there/here”
Origin of the Dreidel Game • After lighting the Hanukkah menorah, it is customary in many homes to play the dreidel game. The game may last until one person has won everything. • Some say the Dreidel game is played to commemorate a game devised by the Jews to camouflage the fact that they were studying Torah, which was outlawed by the Greeks.
Spin the Dreidel Each player starts out with 10 or 15 coins (real or chocolate), nuts, raisins, candies or other markers, and places one marker in the “pot.” the first player spins the dreidel, and depending on which side the dreidel falls on, either wins a marker from the pot or gives up part of his stash. The code (based on the Yiddish version of the game) is as follows: נ Nun (nisht )“nothing” – the player neither takes a marker or gives a marker גGimel (gants)“all” – the player takes the entire pot ה Hey (halb) “half” – the player takes half of the pot, rounding up if there is an odd number ש Shin (shtelayn) “put in” – the player puts one marker in the pot
Being Jewish…and famous • 52% of all Pulitzer Prizes were awarded to Jews • 23% of Nobel Prize winners worldwide are Jewish • 47% of all world chess champions are Jews • 40% of the most influential psychologists, psychiatrists and therapists are Jewish
Things to be aware of when teaching Jewish students. (courtesy of ASU Hillel) • Be aware of Jewish Holy Days • Workloads for Weekends • Clichés • Halocaust History both teaching and making references • Kosher
References for Prospective Teachers • Arizona State University Hillel • My Jewish Learning • Jewish 101