Arms Race & the End of the Cold War Lecture # 7 (1003-1013) Objective~ Intense competition between US & the USSR…and the end
Mutual Assured Destruction (MAD) Arms Race - military build up of nuclear weapons • 1945 U.S. A-Bomb • 1949 USSR A-bomb • 1953 both had h- bombs • Espionage ~ U-2 spy planes • Col. Francis Gary Powers’ plane was shot • down over Soviet airspace (1960)
USSR launched Sputnik 1957 USA launched satellite 1958 US focus (math & science) Soviets were 1st to orbit in space US~ 23 days later U.S. sent 1st person to moon Neil Armstrong Space Race1950s-60s ‘ The Sputniks prove that communism has won the competition between communist and capitalist countries.’
Brinkmanship (1960s) to Détente (1970s-80s) Détente - Reducing tension/prevent nuclear war • “cooling down” • 1972- Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT I) limit number of submarines & missiles • 1991—Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START) • Reagan • Star Wars (Strategic Defense Initiative SDI) • Stop missiles before they hit U.S.
Gorbachev Tries Reform Mikhail Gorbachev (1985) Reform minded~ Perestroika~ free market reforms (private ownership) Glasnost~ “openness” freedom of expression Open political criticism, freedom of press…democracy Allowed Reforms in E. Europe Hungary gov. allows greater freedoms Poland allows labor unions & freedoms 1989 1st democratic elections Democratic movements spread NATO got more powerful, Warsaw lost power late 1980s E. Germany Czech Hungary Poland Romania
Command Economy Collectivization = Unproductive Soviet Union fell behind in space/arms race Reunification of Germany Berlin Wall (1961-1989) U.S. = Lone Superpower We win!!! The Fall of the U.S.S.R~ 1991
Communism Around the World • China • Influenced by Soviet changes • Economic BOOM • Growth Rates Increased • Vietnam • Opened in the 1990’s • Diplomatic Relations with United States • North Korea • Isolation • Cuba • Economy deteriorated • Poor standard of living