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    LECTURE 7 Modern Cities: Late 18th Century to 20th Century The Industrial City Prof. Dr. NaciyeDoratlI
  2. MODERN CAPITALISM & EARLY MODERN PERIOD (16th -18th Centuries) This period was associated with geographic discoveries by merchant overseas traders, especially from England, Portugal, Spain and the Low Countries; the European colonization of the Americas; and the rapid growth in overseas trade. As a result of the increase in thecommercial and industrial activities, the feudal society started to change. Merchant capitalism and mercantilism were established. This was simply a system of TRADE for PROFIT.
  3. TOWARDS MODERN CITIES By the 17th century, capitalism had altered the whole balance of power. From this time onwards, the motivation for urban expansion came mainly from the merchants, the financers, and the landlords (who served their needs). Only in the 19th century, these forces came almost together by the pressure of mechanical invention and large scale industrialism. With the extension of the wholesale market, engaged in long distance operations by means of both money and credit, a new attitude towards life began.
  4. TOWARDS MODERN CITIES In the 18th century Europe, there were two significant developments in the society: (i) expansion of trade leading to growth of a new middle-class, (ii) development of science. The new working middle class could not afford to live in the grand houses and palaces of the old aristocracy and this led to the development of ‘town houses’ and grand terraces (e.g. Regents Park, by John Nash, London).
  6. TOWARDS MODERN CITIES The development of science and rationalism has also influenced the ‘taste’ in architecture. The architectural forms became more simple, refined and rational. This was so called neo-classic planning. This also provided basis for industrial revolution beginning in England and changed from handcrafts to mass production in factories - a new building type located in rapidly growing cities. New urban settlements started to develop around these factories and this led to overcrowding in cities.
  7. TOWARDS MODERN CITIES So the important terms specializing the period: - INDUSTRIALISATION -OVERCROWDING and - URBANISATION.
  8. INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION The Industrial Revolution was a period from 1750 to 1850 where changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transportation, and technology had a great effect on the social, economic and cultural conditions of the times. Prior to this period, goods had mainly been manufactured in urban workshops and homes. Where once manufactures (built goods) were produced in workshops and in homes (in accordance with the putting-out system), the Industrial Revolution launched an era of factories, concentrated labor, and new machinery, too expensive for the home and requiring large power sources. This new form of concentrated production could produce goods in greater number and with greater efficiency.
  9. Profound Changes The MARKET The market has been transformed from a protected component of the medieval town to an expanding institution. This has been a very difficult process. The concrete medieval market place had been replaced by the abstact transnational market. In an abstract market, the purpose of transactions has been (is) profit.
  10. Profound Changes in CITIES Capitalism adopted two methods in relation to the existing urban structures: It sought to escape to the suburbs; It sought either to demolish the old structures or to occupy them at a far higher density than that for which they had been designed. Urban demolition and replacement became one of the chief marks of the new economy. In relation to the city, capitalism had shown a destructive dynamism.
  11. Profound Changes in CITIES Introduction of the town clocks: A sign of the fact that business was no longer regulated by the sun and the powers of the human frame. Capitalism has introduced a New System (by the 17th century). This new system has transformed the complex social order different than that of the Middle Ages. The cities that offered the new municipal privilege of free trade and free deposit of goods, without entry tax, to encourage business trans actions, were the first attracting new enterprises and to further new economic concentration.
  12. Profound Changes in CITIES “Freedom” has also been assigned with a completely different meaning: During the medieval period: freedom had meant freedom from the feudal restrictions, freedom from the guild, the religious order. In the new trading cities: freedom meant freedom from the municipal restrictions- freedom for private investment, for private profit, without any reference to the welfare of the community as a whole.
  13. Profound Changes in CITIES Capitalism, by its very nature, undermined the local economy as well as the self sufficiency. It introduced an element of instability, which affected the existing cities. Emphasis on speculation, not security; Emphasis on profit making innovations, rather than on value conserving traditions and continuity; Capitalism tended to dismantle (altered in a negative way) the whole structure of urban life and place it upon a new impersonal basis: MONEY AND PROFIT.
  14. Profound Changes in CITIES The main attributes of the new commercial spirit found the ideal expression in the new city extensions. The pattern was an ancient and familiar one. But the capitalism of the 17th century treated the individual lot and block, the street and the avenue,as abstract units for selling and buying, without respect for historic uses, for topographic conditions, or for social needs. If the layout of a town has no relation to human needs and activities other than business, the pattern of the city may be simplified: The layout for a business man is that which can be most rapidly reduced to standard monetary units for purchase and sale. (A commodity for easily buying and selling) The fundamental unit is not the neighborhood or precinct any more, but the INDIVIDUAL BUILDING LOT.
  15. Profound Changes in CITIES Building lots Rectangular building block Standard unit for extending the city
  16. Profound Changes in CITIES This type of plan/development offers the engineers none of the problems that irregular parcels and curved boundary lines present. Such plans quick parceling of land conversion of farmland into real state a quick sale. Grid-iron plan
  17. Profound Changes in CITIES URBAN LAND A COMMODITY like labor. Its value is expressed as its market value, but nothing else. The town is perceived only as a physical agglomeration of rentable buildings. The town is planned on these lines and it could sprawl in any direction. The only limitations would be: Physical obstacles; The need for rapid public transportation. Every street might become a TRAFFIC STREET Every section might become a BUSINESS SECTION.
  18. Inefficiencies of Grid-iron Plan SAN FRANCISCO  In paying no attention to the topography, the rectangular plan, by failing to respect the contours, placed tax upon the time and energy of the inhabitants and they were faced with economic losses (gallons of gasoline wasted).
  19. Inefficiencies of Grid-iron Plan In contrast the winding streets of medieval Siena respected the contours, but intersected them at intervals to open up the view, to serve as pedestrian shortcuts. This shows the aesthetic and engineering superiority of an organic plan against the above mentioned example SAN FRANCISCO.
  20. Inefficiencies of Grid-iron Plan For proper utilization of urban land: Direction of prevailing wind; Limitations for industrial districts; Quality of soil; Any other vital factors should be considered. If not considered when planning the urban land, the formal layout would be problematic.
  21. Inefficiencies of Grid-iron Plan In the grid iron plan, as applied in the commercial city, no precinct or area was properly planned for its specific function. On strictly commercial principles, the grid iron plan has answered: The shifting values; The accelerated expansion; The multiplying population; (all required by capitalist regime).
  22. Inefficiencies of Grid-iron Plan The extension of the speculative gridiron and the public transportation system were the two main activities that gave dominance to capitalist forms in the growing cities of the 19th century. An expanding economy demanded Expanding population demanded An expanding city.
  23. Inefficiencies of Grid-iron Plan Unspecified gridiron plan could have almost no contribution to the PERMANENT SOCIAL FUNCTIONS OF THE CITY. When the need arose for sites for public buildings/parks, the appropriate parcels of land would have been already in private ownership, sometimes already built upon, always advanced in price. The city, from the beginning of the 19th century on, was treated not as a public institution, but a private commercial venture.
  24. THE PRICE OF URBAN EXPANSION The law of urban growth, dictated by the capitalist economy, meant exhausting the natural features. i.e. Rivers turned into running sewer. As long as it would be an unpleasant condition for the upper classes, some deficiencies might not be noticed. All over the Western World during the 19th century, new cities were founded and old ones were extended. The first sign of a boom would be the extension of skeleton streets, consisting of curbstone and standpipes for the water systems.
  25. IMPORTANCE OF TRAFFIC One further feature of the commercial plan was the corridor avenue: a linear main road designed mainly to carry the circulation of wheeled vehicles. In the new plan, there was often hardly any differentiation between street and avenue, between neighborhood circulation and trans-urban circulation. The sacrifice of the neighborhood to the traffic avenue went on all during the 19th century. The planners preferred most of the time to place the shopping area along a corridor avenue, instead of creating a compact market center.
  26. CHANGING MODES OF TRAFFIC The traffic generated by the commercial city was so alarming, that as early as 19th century, in New York, traffic jams were common and demand for faster modes of public transportation grew. Up to this time in most cities, the major part of the population walked to work. With the invention of the cheap stage coach, the railroad, and finally the tramway, mass transportation came into existence for the first time in history. Walking distance no longer set the limits of city growth.
  27. CHANGING MODES OF TRAFFIC In some respects, these forms of transportation (the railroad, the tramway), were following routes that did not always coincide with the street network. In an era of cheap fares, it gave the poorer paid workers a degree of mobility that made them equal with those who could afford private vehicles.
  28. MANAGING CONGESTION Urban congestion takes place when: Too many people begin to compete for a limited number of apartments and rooms; Commercial and Industrial Workers began to come into great capitals of Europe in 16th century. Competition for space by poor, unprotected immigrants had the same effects on: 17th century: Paris & Edinburg; 18th century: Manchester 19th century: Liverpool & New York
  29. MANAGING CONGESTION The rents increased and the living conditions worsened. The poor lived in overcrowded dwellings in very bad conditions. Misery at the bottom was the foundation for the luxury at the top. As much as a quarter of the urban population in the bigger cities, it has been estimated, consisted of casuals and beggars.
  30. THE FORMS OF GETTING & SPENDING Emergence of the new capitalist enterprise, the older forms of the market did not entirely disappear. However, the market square did not have any place in the new urban layout. Neither the traffic circles of the baroque plan nor the endless corridor avenue of the commercial plan favored a market square (pedestrian concentration). The open air shop, the outlet for the workroom in the rear, tended to disappear too: the new type of shop took shape behind glass windows, greatly enlarged to cover the whole front and serve as a center of display.
  31. THE FORMS OF GETTING & SPENDING From 17th century onwards: The display market for goods that are already made took place of the goods of produced on an order system. Special market days were only seen in the rural neighborhoods. In the commercial town, every day was a market day. Buying and selling became one of the important activities of all classes. The expansion of the market has been one of the most characteristic attributes of the commercial regime.
  32. THE FORMS OF GETTING & SPENDING By the 18th century, the public markets and producers’ shops of the medieval town were being converted into specialized shops under continuous operation. For example: In 1844, a modern department store, the Ville de France, opened in Paris with 150 employees.
  33. THE FORMS OF GETTING & SPENDING It the vitality of an institution may be assessed by its architecture, the department store was the most vital institution in the commercial regime. (use of iron columns instead of masonry walls- a department store in NY.) The department store offered the buyer the greatest possibility number of wares under one roof – a concentrated opportunity. A sort of many-storied market place.
  34. THE FORMS OF GETTING & SPENDING An important aspect of the commercial city: The chief architectural forms produced by the commercial city were based on abstract units of space (the front foot and the cubic foot). With no essential structural re-arrangement the hotel, the apartment house, the department store, and the office building were CONVERTIBLE ONE INTO THE OTHER.
  35. THE FORMS OF GETTING & SPENDING The Glass- covered Shopping Arcade: A new structure, utilizing the new achievements in iron frames and glass walls (offered by the new technology). In the early part of the 19th century, this kind of arcade was established in every commercial city. The shopping arcade in Brussels is one of the longest, the most significant one in Milan.
  36. THE FORMS OF GETTING & SPENDING shopping arcade in Brussels
  37. THE FORMS OF GETTING & SPENDING Duomo Vittorio Emmanuel II Shopping arcade Milan
  38. AMSTERDAM A UNIQUE & CONTRASTING EXAMPLE Commercial spirit at its best. It is a city that effected the transition from protectionism to commercial competition without losing form. It was not widely imitated. Why? It was not capitalism alone, but a complex of institutions, personalities, and opportunities, coming together at a unique moment, that made that city one of the greatest examples of the town planner’s art.
  39. AMSTERDAM A UNIQUE & CONTRASTING EXAMPLE Throughout its main period of expansion, the city did not lose its unity. The technical development of the city was based on the strong control of water, not only for communication and transport, but for the sculpture of the landscape.
  40. THE COKETOWN Up to 19th century, there had been a rough balance of activities within the city. Work and Trade were always important. But Religion and Art and Play were also given importance as well. We should note however that from 16th century onwards, there was a tendency to concentrate on economic activities and consideration of efforts for other functions as waste of time.
  41. THE COKETOWN Following industrial revolution, the cities had been transformed into industrial towns where large scale factory production took place. It was a town of machinery and tall chimneys, with continuous smoke. It contained several large streets all very like one another, and many small streets still more like one another, inhabited by people equally like one another, who all went in and out at the same hours, with the same sound upon the same pavements, to do the same work, and to whom every day was the same as yesterday and to-morrow, and every year the counterpart of the last and the next. You saw nothing in Coketown but what was severely workful.
  42. THE COKETOWN The generating agents of the new city were the mine, the factory and the railroad. Between 1820 and 1900 the destruction and disorder within the greater cities is like that of a battlefield. In the new areas of city building, bankers, industrialists and mechanical inventors were dominant. They were responsible for what was good or what was bad. In their own image, they created a new type of city.
  43. THE COKETOWN Charles Dickens, in ‘Hard Times’, called this new type of city as COKETOWN.
  44. THE COKETOWN Industrialism, the main creative force of the 19th century, produced the most degraded urban environment. The political base of this new type of urban concentration rested upon three main pillars: The abolition of the guilds and the creation of a state of permanent insecurity for the working classes; The establishment of the competitive open market for labor and for sale of the goods; The maintenance of foreign dependencies as source of row materials and as a ready market for the products.
  45. THE COKETOWN Its economic foundations were the exploitation of the coal mine, increased production of iron and the use of a steady, reliable source of mechanical power: the steam engine. These technical advances depended socially upon the invention of new forms of corporate organization and administration. The most important feature of the whole urban transition was the displacement of the population all over the world. In addition to the population movement, increase of population has also been significant during this period.
  47. NEED FOR COLONIZATION Need for more food supply Through colonization of distant areas, European Countries were able to bring to their system of agriculture a whole series of new energy crops, maize and potato, tobacco and cane-sugar. This increase in food supply supported the increase in population.
  49. NEED FOR COLONIZATION Extraordinary changes of scale took place in: The masses of buildings; The areas they cover.
  50. MECHANIZATION AND ABBAU Two types of experiences resulted in the LEADING PHILOSOPHY OF LIFE. Accurate concept of mathematical order (derived from the renewed study of the motions of the bodies: the highest pattern of MECHANICAL REGULARITY; Physical process of breaking up, pulverizing, smelting, which the alchemists, had turned from a mechanical process into a routine of scientific investigation.
  51. MECHANIZATION AND ABBAU Spread of mining was accompanied by a general loss of FORM: A degradation of the landscape. Agriculture was getting better. (Improvement of the landscape) However process of mining was destructive. From 1830s onwards, the mine which was restricted to specific sites, started to be transported by railroad.
  52. MECHANIZATION AND ABBAU In the mining town: Process of Abbau- mining or un-building; Through the railroad this process has been extended to almost every industrial community.
  53. MECHANIZATION AND ABBAU Food chains and production chains throughout the world: Ice travelled from Boston to Calcutta; Tea travelled from China to Ireland; Machinery and cotton good from Birmingham and Manchester to far corners of the world. Postal service Fast locomotion Communication by telegraph and cables
  54. FACTORY, RAILROAD AND SLUM Main elements in the new urban complex: The FACTORY; The RAILROAD; and The SLUM. These constituted the industrial town.
  55. FACTORY, RAILROAD AND SLUM The factory became the nucleus of the new urban organism. Every other detail of life was secondary to it. The factory usually claimed the best site: The sites near water front. The river, the canal had another important function: it was the cheapest and most convenient damping ground for liquid waste. (environmental pollution).
  56. FACTORY, RAILROAD AND SLUM From Social Point of View: Some of the worst features of the factory system: The long hours; The monotonous work; The low wages; The systematic miss-use of child labor.
  57. FACTORY, RAILROAD AND SLUM Living places were located at leftover spaces between the factories and sheds and railroad yards. The town consisted of fragments of land, with piecemeal developed streets and avenues, leftover between the factories, the railroads, the freight yards and dump heaps. The workers lived in worse conditions. Cellars were used as dwelling places. Even in 1930s, there were 20.000 basement dwellings in London, marked as unfit for human occupation.
  58. FACTORY, RAILROAD AND SLUM The dirt and congestion brought other pests: The rats that carried plague; The bedbugs that infested the beds; The lice that spread typhus; The flies. Not to mention: the absence of plumbing and municipal sanitation. In the new industrial town, the most elementary traditions of municipal service were absent.
  59. FACTORY, RAILROAD AND SLUM Whole quarters were sometimes without water even from local well. Deserted houses of uncertain title were used as lodging-houses, 15-20 people in a single room. This depression of living quarters was well- nigh universal among the workers in the industrial towns.
  60. HOUSES OF ILL- FAME New houses of the working class differed from country to country, from region to region. Tall tenements in Glasgow, Paris Berlin etc.; Two storey buildings with four, five rooms in London, Chicago;
  61. HOUSES OF ILL- FAME But in industrial housing there were common characteristics: Block after block repeats the same formation: Same dreary streets; Same shadowed, rubbish-filled alleys Same absence of opens paces for children play and gardens; The windows were narrow; Inefficient interior light.
  62. HOUSES OF ILL- FAME More respectable quarters were cleaner, (better paid artisans and clerks lived) Row or detached houses with a very small garden in front of the house. Until the end of 19th century, inventions and mass production did not touch the worker’s house.
  63. HOUSES OF ILL- FAME Improvements which slowly became available to the middle and upper classes after 1830: Iron piping; Improved water closet; The gas light and the gas stove; The stationary bathtub with attached water pipes; A collective water and sewage system. Only after a generation these became middle class necessities.
  64. A CLOSE-UP OF COKETOWN The greatest contribution of the industrial town was the reaction it produced against the problems that it had created and to begin with the art of sanitation/ public hygiene. To bring back fresh air, pure water, green open spaces and sunlight to the city, became the first objective of sound planning. The trend of cleanliness had its origins before this era: Dutch cities of 17thcentury- With their plentiful water supplies; Their large house windows; Their tiled floors.
  65. A CLOSE-UP OF COKETOWN In order to improve the living conditions for the poor urban masses, PUBLIC HEALTH ACTS were culminated in 1875 in England. Public Health Acts mainly aimed at improving sanitation and living conditions in general, for the poor urban masses and they prescribed minimum standards for urban housing with respect to the, - level, width and construction of new streets and provision for the sewerage thereof; - structure of walls, foundations, roofs and chimneys for securing stability and the prevention of fires and for the purpose of health; - sufficiency of space about buildings, to secure a free circulation of air, with respect of ventilation of buildings; - drainage of buildings.
  66. A CLOSE-UP OF COKETOWN These regulations affected the form and the design of urban housing and so urban planning in England.
  67. A CLOSE-UP OF COKETOWN The Garden City The next great set of planning conventions, those of the Garden City movement were intended to free the pressures on such cities by decanting population to new and much smaller towns, built well outside the city in virgin countryside. The chief exponent of this approach was Ebenezer Howard whose main concern was to stem the drift of population-limited to 32.000 people-from rural to urban areas presenting the alternatives as town and country magnets, each of which has its attractions and corresponding disadvantages – integration of town and country.