Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus Preview Section 1:Natural Environments Section 2:History and Culture Section 3:The Region Today Chapter Wrap-Up
Section 1: Natural Environments Read to Discover • What landforms and rivers are found in Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus? • What factors influence the region’s climates and vegetation? • What natural resources does the region have?
Section 1: Natural Environments Rivers Dnieper River Don River Yenisey River Angara River Lena River Ob River Volga River Landforms Ural Mountains Caucasus Mountains Pripet Marshes Carpathian Mountains Crimean Peninsula Siberian Plains Kamchatka Peninsula RussiaUkraineBelarus Climates/Vegetation Humid continental Subarctic Tundra in the north Taiga forest in the south Deciduous-coniferous forest in the far south Steppe south Natural Resources Wood from forests Gold and diamonds Coal, hydroelectricity, oil, and gas, geothermal Copper, iron ore, manganese, nickel, and platinum
Section 1: Natural Environments • Ural Mountains—Divide Eurasia • Caucasus Mountains—Between Black and Caspian Seas • Northern European Plain—Covers most of European area • Pripet Marshes—Largest swamp in Europe • Carpathian Mountains—Cross the Ukraine’s western borders Landforms
Section 1: Natural Environments • Crimean Peninsula—Southeastern Ukraine • Volga River Basin—Dominates the heart of Russia • West Siberian Plain—East of the Urals, with huge swamp • Central Siberian Plateau—West of Kamchatka • Siberian Mountains—Include volcanoes of Kamchatka Peninsula Landforms (continued)
Section 1: Natural Environments • Dnieper, Don, and Volga—Key south-flowing rivers; shipping, hydroelectric power, water for cities • Ob, Yenisey, and Lena—Major Siberian rivers; flow into Arctic Ocean • Angara—Flows through southern Siberia from Lake Baikal Rivers
Section 1: Natural Environments Russia’s climate and vegetation are influenced by latitude, winds and ocean currents, and the size of the land mass. • Location in northern latitudes produces cold, harsh weather. • During coldest months, rivers and canals freeze. A polluted icy fog often hangs over cities. • When permafrost melts, buildings tilt, highways buckle, and railroad tracks slip sideways. • Siberian interior is too large to receive mild ocean winds, making it very dry and cold. Climate and Vegetation
Section 1: Natural Environments • Moist winds from the Atlantic Ocean produce milder climate in European portion. • Coastal areas of Russian Far East receive rain-bearing winds from Pacific Ocean. • Climate affects vegetation, north to south • Tundra—Low shrubs, mosses, wildflowers • Taiga—Forest, mainly evergreen • Mixed forest—Mixed deciduous-coniferous forest • Steppe grasslands—Major grain-producing area Climate and Vegetation (continued)
Section 1: Natural Environments • Lumber and paper pulp from the taiga forests • Gold and diamonds in eastern Siberia • Key oil and gas reserves in Caspian Sea area, Volga River basin, Ob River basin • Geothermal power in Far East • Mines in Russia and Ukraine—Coal, copper, gold, iron ore, manganese, nickel, platinum Natural Resources
Section 2: History and Culture Read to Discover • What are some major events in the growth of the Russian Empire? • How did the Soviet Union develop, and what was life like for its citizens? • What are some features of the region’s culture?
Section 2: History and Culture Question What are some of the major events in the growth of the Russian Empire?
Section 2: History and Culture 1547Ivan the Terrible crowns himself czar of all Russia—north of Kiev to the Arctic Ocean and east to the Urals. 1800sRussians spread into the Caucasus and Central Asia. 1100sEastern, or Orthodox, Christianity is the main religion of Kiev. 800 1100 1400 1500 1600 1800 1900 1905Russia retreats to its present-day boundaries with China and North Korea after losing a war to Japan. Late 1400sPrince Ivan III, of Moscow, wins control over parts of Russia from the Mongols. 1637Explorers reach the Pacific coast at the Sea of Okhotsk. 800sKiev becomes an important trade center for the Mediterranean and Baltic Sea areas. 1917The czar resigns and the Bolsheviks overthrow the government in the Russian Revolution.
Section 2: History and Culture • Slavs settled region, and by 800s Kiev was an important trade center. • Mongols conquered Russia in the 1200s. • Russian kingdom of Muscovy emerged. • Czar Ivan IV conquered lands and built empire. • Russian trappers and pioneers settled eastern territory. • Peter the Great added Baltic lands, Belarus, and Ukraine by 1725. Growth of the Russian Empire
Section 2: History and Culture • Catherine the Great expanded south, adding non-Russian peoples. • Later expansion included Caucasus and Central Asia, Alaska, Amur River region. • In the 1800s, industrialization began, and the serfs were freed. • The czar abdicated in 1917, clearing the way for the Bolsheviks to overthrow the government in the Russian Revolution. Growth of the Russian Empire (continued)
Section 2: History and Culture • Bolsheviks established communism based on the ideas of Karl Marx. • The workers were to elect soviets to govern locally. • Communists restructured Russian Empire as the Soviet Union, with 15 republics. • Soviet leaders set up one-party state; Stalin ruled brutally. • Command economy produced few quality goods. The Soviet Union
Section 2: History and Culture • State-run farms were unproductive; millions of peasants died. • Personal freedoms were strictly limited; people were sent to labor camps. • Soviet leaders tried to stop religious worship. • Some success achieved in education, health care, and employment. • Soviet Union collapsed at the end of 1991. The Soviet Union (continued)
Section 2: History and Culture Cultural Features • Countries share a strong sense of Slavic culture. • Many non-Slavic peoples live in the Caucasus; language and culture vary. • Societies are highly urbanized. • All three countries are losing population. • Main religion is Eastern Orthodox Christianity. • Food reveals influence of cold climates. • Rural residents live in wood homes in the north, sod homes on the steppe.
Section 3: The Region Today Read to Discover • How have the economies of areas within the region developed? • What challenges does the region face?
Section 3: The Region Today Question What factors contribute to the economic development of the region?
Volga and Urals Heavy industry, abundant hydroelectricity, refineries and petrochemicals, car and truck factories, mineral resources and smelters St. Petersburg Region Westernized, good transportation, trade with European cities, chemicals, machinery, ships, textiles, draws tourists and high-tech industries Moscow Region Economic center, transportation hub, higher education, finance, access to raw materials, millions of Russian workers Economic Development Ukraine and Kiev Centrally located; rich agricultural, energy, industrial, and human resources; fruits, vegetables, animal products; heavy industry; metalworking Belarus and Minsk Few resources, educated labor force, wood product industries, peat, outdated plants Section 3: The Region Today Siberia Trans-Siberian Railroad; furs, gold, lumber, mining, and oil; small labor force with high wages The Russian Far East Factories, forest and mineral resources, naval bases, commercial fishing, oil
Section 3: The Region Today • Political and Economic • Resolving tensions over reform and among ethnic groups • Finding solutions to unemployment and crime; gap between rich and poor • Modernizing the economy and improving production • Geographical • Curbing migration, which is emptying regions • Repairing and stemming environmental damage Challenges
Chapter Wrap-UpUnderstanding the Main Ideas • What are the main physical characteristics of the two huge areas west and east of the Ural Mountains? • What are some resources that Russia has in large quantities? • Across what physical region did early migrants come to Russia and its neighbors? How did those newcomers shape the region’s culture? • Where do most of the region’s people live? • What environmental problems remain from the Soviet era?