CHAPTER 17 Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus Section 1: Natural Environments Section 2: History and Culture Section 3: The Region Today
Section 1 Natural Environments Objectives: • What landforms and rivers are found in Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus? • What factors influence the region’s climates and vegetation? • What natural resources does the region have?
Section 1 Natural Environments Landforms • Ural Mountains—divide Eurasia • Caucasus Mountains—between Black and Caspian Seas • Northern European Plain—covers most of European area • Pripet Marshes—largest swamp in Europe • Crimean Peninsula—southeastern Ukraine • West Siberian Plain • Siberian mountains—include volcanoes of Kamchatka Peninsula
Section 1 Natural Environments Rivers • Dnieper, Don, and Volga—key south-flowing rivers • Ob, Yenisey, and Lena—flow into Arctic Ocean
Section 1 Natural Environments Climate and vegetation Russia’s climate and vegetation are influenced by latitude, winds and ocean currents, and the size of the land mass.
Section 1 Natural Environments Climate and vegetation (continued) • Location in northern latitudes produces cold, harsh weather. • Siberian interior is too large to receive mild ocean winds, making it very dry and cold. • Moist winds from the Atlantic Ocean produce milder climate in European portion. • Coastal areas of Russian Far East receive rain-bearing winds from Pacific Ocean. • Climate affects vegetation, north to south—tundra, taiga, mixed forest, steppe grasslands.
Section 1 Natural Environments Natural resources: rich in forest, energy, and mineral resources • lumber and paper pulp from the taiga forests • gold and diamonds in eastern Siberia • key oil and gas reserves in Caspian Sea area, Volga basin, Ob basin • geothermal power in Far East • mines in Russia and Ukraine—coal, copper, gold, iron ore, manganese, nickel, platinum
Section 2 History and Culture Objectives: • What are some major events in the growth of the Russian Empire? • How did the Soviet Union develop, and what was life like for its citizens? • What are some features of the region’s culture?
Section 2 History and Culture Growth of the Russian Empire: • Mongols conquered Russia in the 1200s. • Russian kingdom of Muscovy emerged. • Czar Ivan IV conquered lands and built empire. • Russian trappers and pioneers settled eastern territory. • Peter the Great added Baltic lands, Belarus, and Ukraine by 1725. • Catherine the Great expanded south, adding non-Russian peoples. • Later expansion included Caucasus and Central Asia, Alaska, Amur River region.
Section 2 History and Culture The Soviet Union: • Bolsheviks established communism based on the ideas of Karl Marx. • Communists restructured Russian Empire as the Soviet Union, with 15 republics. • Soviet leaders set up one-party state; Stalin ruled brutally. • Command economy produced few goods and services.
Section 2 History and Culture The Soviet Union: (continued) • State-run farms were unproductive; millions of peasants died. • Personal freedoms were strictly limited; people were sent to labor camps. • Some success achieved in education, health care, and employment.
Section 2 History and Culture Cultural features: • Countries share a strong sense of Slavic culture. • Many non-Slavic peoples live in the Caucasus; language and culture vary. • Societies are highly urbanized. • All three countries are losing population. • Main religion is Eastern Orthodox Christianity. • Food reveals influence of cold climates. • Rural residents live in wood homes in the north, sod homes on the steppe.
Section 3 The Region Today Objectives: • How have the economies of areas within the region developed? • What challenges does the region face?
Section 3 The Region Today Growth of economic regions: • Moscow—national economic center; trade and transport links to rest of country • St. Petersburg—economy based on Western access and good transport • Volga and Urals—heavy industry uses Volga River and mineral deposits • Siberia—resource development follows Trans-Siberian rail route
Section 3 The Region Today Growth of economic regions: (continued) • Russian Far East—assets include long coastline and natural resources • Ukraine and Kiev—centrally located in major farming and industrial zone • Belarus and Minsk—few resources; economy relies on educated work force
Section 3 The Region Today Challenges: • Political and economic • resolving tensions over reform and among ethnic groups • finding solutions to unemployment and crime; gap between rich and poor • modernizing the economy and improving production • Geographical • curbing migration, which is emptying regions • repairing and stemming environmental damage