Download
light interference continued n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Light Interference Continued… PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Light Interference Continued…

Light Interference Continued…

204 Vues Download Presentation
Télécharger la présentation

Light Interference Continued…

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Light Interference Continued…

  2. +1 t -1 +1 t -1 +2 t -2 Superposition ConstructiveInterference + In Phase 5

  3. +2 t -2 Superposition Destructive Interference +1 t -1 + +1 Out of Phase 180 degrees t -1 7

  4. Superposition + Different f 1) Constructive 2) Destructive 3) Neither 10

  5. Interference Requirements • Need two (or more) waves • Must have same frequency • Must be coherent (i.e. waves must have definite phase relation) 12

  6. hmmm… I’m just far enough away that l2-l1=l/2, and I hear no sound at all! l1 l2 Interference for Sound … For example, a pair of speakers, driven in phase, producing a tone of a single f and l: But this won’t work for light--can’t get coherent sources 15

  7. Observe Laser Light Through… One Slit: Two Slits: Multiple Slits:

  8. Observe Laser Light Through… One Slit: Broad Central Maximum… Two Slits: Central Bright Spot with symmetric dark fringes. Multiple Slits: Central Bright Spot. Narrowor bright spots, brighter maximums, darker minimums.

  9. Single Slit Diffraction

  10. Double Slit Interference Only Interference + Diffraction

  11. Five Slit Diffraction Grating (Inteference & Diffraction)

  12. How do we predict the locations of the bright and dark fringes produced by a single slit? double slit? Multiple slit?

  13. Young’s Double Slit #1 Light waves from a single source travel through 2 slits before meeting on a screen. The interference will be: • Constructive • Destructive • Depends on L d The rays start in phase, and travel the same distance, so they will arrive in phase. Single source of monochromatic light  L 2 slits-separated by d Screen a distance L from slits 23

  14. ½ l shift Young Double Slit #2 The experiment is modified so that one of the waves has its phase shifted by ½ l. Now, the interference will be: • Constructive • Destructive • Depends on L d The rays start out of phase, and travel the same distance, so they will arrive out of phase. Single source of monochromatic light  L 2 slits-separated by d Screen a distance L from slits 25

  15. At points where the difference in path length is the screen is dark. (destructive) 2 slits-separated by d Young’s Double Slit Concept At points where the difference in path length is 0, l,2l, …, the screen is bright. (constructive) d Single source of monochromatic light  L Screen a distance L from slits 27

  16. Young’s Double Slit Key Idea L Two rays travel almost exactly the same distance.(screen must be very far away: L >> d) Bottom ray travels a little further. Key for interference is this small extra distance. 30

  17. Constructiveinterference Destructive interference where m = 0, or 1, or 2, ... Young’s Double Slit Quantitative d d Path length difference = d sin q Need l < d 32

  18. y Young’s Double Slit Quantitative L d A little geometry… sin(q)  tan(q) = y/L Constructive interference Destructive interference where m = 0, or 1, or 2, ... 33

  19. Young’s Double Slit #3 L y d When this Young’s double slit experiment is placed under water. The separation y between minima and maxima 1) increases 2) same 3) decreases Under water l decreases so y decreases 35

  20. d 1) Which condition gives destructive interference? 2) where m = 0, or 1, or 2, ... Double Slit #4 L d = d sinq Path length difference d sin() 8

  21. 1 2 3 4 d d Path length difference 1-3 = 2d sinq = 3d sinq Path length difference 1-4 Constructive interference for all paths when Multiple Slits: (Diffraction Grating – N slits with spacing d) L d =l = d sinq Path length difference 1-2 =2l =3l 13

  22. Constructive Interference Maxima are at: Same as for Young’s Double Slit ! Diffraction Grating N slits with spacing d q * screen VERY far away

  23. Three slit interference 9I0 I0 19

  24. For many slits, maxima are still at 2 slits (N=2) 10 slits (N=10) intensity intensity 0 l 0 2l l 2l Multiple Slit Interference (Diffraction Grating) Peak location depends on wavelength! Region between maxima gets suppressed more and more as no. of slits increases – bright fringes become narrower and brighter. 22

  25. Single Slit Interference?!

  26. Wall shadow bright Diffraction Rays This is not what is actually seen! Screen with opening (or obstacle without screen) 26

  27. Diffraction/ Huygens Every point on a wave front acts as a source of tiny wavelets that move forward. • Light waves originating at different points within opening travel different distances to wall, and can interfere! • We will see maxima and minima on the wall. 30

  28. Central maximum 1st minima

  29. 1 2 1 2 When rays 1 and 1 interfere destructively. Single Slit Diffraction W Rays 2 and 2also start W/2 apart and have the same path length difference. Under this condition, every ray originating in top half of slit interferes destructively with the corresponding ray originating in bottom half. 1st minimum at sin q = l/w 33

  30. 2 1 2 1 When rays 1 and 1 will interfere destructively. Single Slit Diffraction w Rays 2 and 2also start w/4 apart and have the same path length difference. Under this condition, every ray originating in top quarter of slit interferes destructively with the corresponding ray originating in second quarter. 2nd minimum at sin q = 2l/w 35

  31. (m=1, 2, 3, …) Single Slit Diffraction Summary Condition for halves of slit to destructively interfere Condition for quarters of slit to destructively interfere Condition for sixths of slit to destructively interfere All together… THIS FORMULA LOCATES MINIMA!! Narrower slit => broader pattern l Note: interference only occurs when w > l 38

  32. opposite! Recap. • Interference: Coherent waves • Full wavelength difference = Constructive • ½ wavelength difference = Destructive • Multiple Slits • Constructive d sin(q) = m l (m=1,2,3…) • Destructive d sin(q) = (m + 1/2) l 2 slit only • More slits = brighter max, darker mins • Huygens’ Principle: Each point on wave front acts as coherent source and can interfere. • Single Slit: • Destructive: w sin(q) = m l (m=1,2,3…) • Resolution: Max from 1 at Min from 2 50