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Lect1. - 01/06/05 PowerPoint Presentation
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Lect1. - 01/06/05

Lect1. - 01/06/05

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Lect1. - 01/06/05

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  1. CDA 6505 Network Architecture and Client/Server Computing Lecture 5 Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) by Zornitza Genova Prodanoff Lect1..ppt - 01/06/05

  2. Outline • ATM Protocol Architecture • Logical connections • ATM Cells • Service categories • ATM Adaptation Layer (AAL) ZGP002

  3. ATM Protocol Architecture • Fixed-size packets called cells • Streamlined: minimal error and flow control • 2 protocol layers relate to ATM functions: • Common layer providing packet transfers • Service dependent ATM adaptation layer (AAL) • AAL maps other protocols to ATM ZGP003

  4. Protocol Model has 3 planes • User • Control • management ZGP004

  5. ZGP005

  6. Logical Connections • VCC (Virtual Channel Connection): a logical connection analogous to virtual circuit in X.25 • VPC (Virtual Path Connection): a bundle of VCCs with same endpoints ZGP006

  7. ZGP007

  8. Advantages of Virtual Paths • Simplified network architecture • Increased network performance and reliability • Reduced processing and short connection setup time • Enhanced network services ZGP008

  9. ZGP009

  10. VCC Uses • Between end users • Between an end user and a network entity • Between 2 network entities ZGP0010

  11. ZGP0011

  12. VPC/VCC Characteristics • Quality of Service (QoS) • Switched and semi-permanent virtual channel connections • Cell sequence integrity • Traffic parameter negotiation and usage monitoring • (VPC only) virtual channel identifier restriction within a VPC ZGP0012

  13. Control Signaling • A mechanism to establish and release VPCs and VCCs • 4 methods for VCCs: • Semi-permanent VCCs • Meta-signaling channel • User-to-network signaling virtual channel • User-to-user signaling virtual channel ZGP0013

  14. Control Signaling • 3 methods for VPCs • Semi-permanent • Customer controlled • Network controlled ZGP0014

  15. ATM Cells • Fixed size • 5-octet header • 48-octet information field • Small cells reduce delay for high-priority cells • Fixed size facilitate switching in hardware ZGP0015

  16. Header Format • Generic flow control • Virtual path identifier (VPI) • Virtual channel identifier (VCI) • Payload type • Cell loss priority • Header error control ZGP0016

  17. ZGP0017

  18. Generic Flow Control • Control traffic flow at user-network interface (UNI) to alleviate short-term overload conditions • When GFC enabled at UNI, 2 procedures used: • Uncontrolled transmission • Controlled transmission ZGP0018

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  20. Header Error Control • 8-bit field calculated based on remaining 32 bits of header • error detection • in some cases, error correction of single-bit errors in header • 2 modes: • error detection • Error correction ZGP0020

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  24. Service Categories • Real-time service • Constant bit rate (CBR) • Real-time variable bit rate (rt-VBR) • Non-real-time service • Non-real-time variable bit rate (nrt-VBR) • Available bit rate (ABR) • Unspecified bit rate (UBR) • Guaranteed frame rate (GFR) ZGP0024

  25. ZGP0025

  26. ATM Adaptation Layer (ATM) • Support non-ATM protocols • e.g., PCM voice, LAPF • AAL Services • Handle transmission errors • Segmentation/reassembly (SAR) • Handle lost and misinserted cell conditions • Flow control and timing control ZGP0026

  27. Applications of AAL and ATM • Circuit emulation (e.g., T-1 synchronous TDM circuits) • VBR voice and video • General data services • IP over ATM • Multiprotocol encapsulation over ATM (MPOA) • LAN emulation (LANE) ZGP0027

  28. Applications of AAL and ATM ZGP0028

  29. AAL Protocols • AAL layer has 2 sublayers: • Convergence Sublayer (CS) • Supports specific applications using AAL • Segmentation and Reassembly Layer (SAR) • Packages data from CS into cells and unpacks at other end ZGP0029

  30. ZGP0030

  31. AAL Type 1 • Constant-bit-rate source • SAR simply packs bits into cells and unpacks them at destination • One-octet header contains 3-bit SC field to provide an 8-cell frame structure • No CS PDU since CS sublayer primarily for clocking and synchronization ZGP0032

  32. AAL Type 3/4 • May be connectionless or connection oriented • May be message mode or streaming mode ZGP0033

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  36. AAL Type 5 • Streamlined transport for connection oriented protocols • Reduce protocol processing overhead • Reduce transmission overhead • Ensure adaptability to existing transport protocols ZGP0037

  37. ZGP0038