Developmental Psychology 7-9% Of AP Psychology Exam
Development includes the processes and stages of growth from conception across the lifespan. Includes changes in physical, cognitive, moral and social behaviors.
Pre-Natal Development Germinal Stage = 1-2 wks (Zygote) Embryonic Stage = 2 months (heart, nervsyst, etc.) Fetal Stage = remainder of pregnancy(organs…)
Risks During Pregnancy ILLNESSES -RUBELLA TERATOGENS -DRUGS -ALCOHOL
Video: The Biology of Prenatal Development • Take notes as you view the video:
Physical Development • Growth Rate declines during infancy but is faster than any other post natal period • Neo-Natal Reflexes (until about 4 months) such as: • Babinski (big toe moves toward the top surface of the foot and the other toes fan out after the sole of the foot has been firmly stroked) • Startle Reflx • Grasping, Stepping, Rooting, Pursing lips, Withdrawal from pain
Cognitive Development • Preference for face-like patterns • 6-12 mo = remember, recognize, & react • 12 mo = reasoning & higher level cognitive functions What are babies thinking? Ted Talks
Development of Knowledge Theory = Piaget • Building blocks of human dev = SCHEMAS • Generalized mental representation • Assimilation = using existing schemas & apply to new info • Accommodation = change schema
Piaget Four Stages • Sensorimotor birth – 2 yrs • Preoperational 2-7 yrs • Concrete Operational 7-11 yrs • Formal Operational 11 into adulthood
Sensorimotor Stage • Infant = Scientists! • learn about the world through senses and body movements 1 to 4 mo = Learn to combine two reflexes 4 to 8 mo = Improve hand-eye coordination
Sensorimotor Stage Step Four 8 to 12 months • Intentional behavior • They learn certain actions lead to certain results • Imitates others • Love playing Peek-A-Boo • Learn Object Permanence
Sensorimotor Stage 12 to 18 mo = • Trial and error: Push a cracker off a high chair and watch it fall to the floor. Then does it again • Can find hidden objects • Understands that objects exist independently
Sensorimotor Stage 18 to 24 mo= Begin to experiment mentally as well as physically • They think about what they are going to do before they do it
Preoperational Stage • Ages 2 to 7 • Basic Mental operations start replacing sensorimotor activities as the primary way to learn • Make-believe play is used to create and express all kinds of mental images
Language & Grammar Children learn mostly by language and mental images I “eated” my apple No, it’s ate Then I “ated” my apple
Language and Grammar basketti Shocolate Cake
Preoperational Stage Egocentrism Everyone views the world like I do
Preoperational Stage Use feeling to solve problems rather than logic I don’t want to go to sleep! I’m not tired! He hurt my feelings so I hit him!
Preoperational Stage • learning multiple classification– the ability to understand that an object may fit into more than one category • learning seriation—the ability top order groups of things by size, weight, or any common property • For example arranging beads on a bracelet from smallest to largest
Preoperational Stage Conservation • They think the same amount of liquid is more when poured into a tall think glass. • To them taller means more!
Preoperational Stage Time My birthday is before Christmas and after Halloween
Preoperational Stage Time Are we there yet? Are we there yet? Are we there yet? Are we there yet?
Preoperational Stage • Children may not be aware of what is real and what is make-believe