Download
week three n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Week Three PowerPoint Presentation

Week Three

157 Vues Download Presentation
Télécharger la présentation

Week Three

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Week Three Dr. Stephen Ogden LIBS 7001

  2. Audience(“Concepts,” pp. 4-6) • Identifying the audience is a key factor in analyzing and composing texts. • considerations for the writer, re: audience • social status: above, = to, or below you in status? • knowledge: what audience knows about your subject • other factors: age, gender, class, race, affiliations Texts and messages often have multiple audiences.

  3. Ethos / Speaker: “Voice”(Concepts, pp. 7-9) • (details later when we discuss persuasion) • ethos / voice = the writer’s “public image” • how speaker is positioned in the text, to establish • a strong character (moral / ethical) • credibility (believability, competence) • goodwill with the audience Texts and messages may have multiple speakers. One speaker can have multiple personalities.

  4. Aristotle: writing is Techne—a science with order & rules. Middle-Ages through to (British) present: Trivium • Grammar: how words work • Rhetoric: how to arrange words to get them to do what you want. • Dialectic: how ideas are arranged in writing • Thus, Good Writing is judged essentially by its EFFECTIVENESS • Cf: With Quadrivium = ‘Seven Liberal Arts.’

  5. What is Rhetoric? • refers to principles established in ancient Greece, focused on speaking persuasively (5th-4th c. BCE) • includes consideration of • motives or purposeof author / speaker • audience • context / genre • ethos, or speaker’s stance (voice / tone) • bias (later on in this course) • arrangement • style (later on this course)

  6. Cautions: form & thesis • As Sargent & Paraskevas (285 ff) state, don’t be constrained in your writing by • organization: the five-paragraph essay, which is “a formula, not a composition” (285) • thesis statement: avoid being stressed about starting your essays with a fully worked out thesis statement • CHANGE “In this essay here’s what I’ll show” • TO: “In this essay, here’s what I’m going to puzzle over”

  7. You as reader vs. as writer • Professional writers: readers pay to read what they write • Students in writing classes: writers pay readers (instructor) to read what they write (Sargent & Paraskevas, p. 287) • Note that “essay” comes from the OF word “to attempt” • Use your writing as exploration, within the “academic essay” genre

  8. Importance of Arrangement • identify ways to arrange a ‘Discourse’ • recognize when to use different types of • beginnings • endings • development • Transitions • Arrangement = • "order of ideas” • “disposition” • The Whole Text • The Parts of the Text • paragraphs The 2nd of the 5 classical essay canons: • invention: finding & developing a topic • Arrangement(.1) • style • memory [critical in spoken discourse] • Delivery .1 The art of ordering material to deliver intended information effectively. 8

  9. Arrangement Patterns (in the reader) • (Western) readers’ assumption is that essay or oration will have a recognisable pattern. • beginning (introduction) • Organized middle (body) • series of clear transitions (links) • definite end (conclusion). • Nb. China & Japan arrange differently: • qi-cheng–zhuan–he 起承轉合ki–sho-ten-ketsu • - begin – follow – turn - bind together 9

  10. Cicero (~100 BC): Classical Rhetorical Arrangement • Exordium—introduces essay subject • Narratio—states the facts to be essayed • Partitio—divides into subject’s aspects • Confirmatio—the proof of your essay • Refutatio—states & refutes (rebuttal) obvious objections • Peroratio—effective summation • 2-5 may be absent (cf. purpose) 10

  11. Taxonomic Arrangement (Whole Text) • Universal, Sequential e.g. Professional Journal • TITLE • Abstract • Introduction • Methods • Results • Discussion • Conclusion • References Cicero 1 & 2 = Exordium 3 = Narratio 4 = Confirmatio 5 = Refutatio 6 = Peroratio 11

  12. An Organic, or Natural, Arrangement (Whole Text) • Idiosyncratic (idio = Gr. ‘single’) • Changes for each case • Depends on the position, mood, need or situation of the writer (relative to the reader(s) • Reliable elements (in any order) include: • Capture the audience’s attention (Aristotle) • Provide or invoke background data or information • State and Prove the thesis • Anticipate important counter-theses or objections • Conclude with an appeal to reader’s emotion • To his or her better self 12

  13. alternative patterns • common in personal essays • can be “heuristics” (Sargent & Paraskevas, p. 288) - “ways to explore … material” • always contain these durable elements - but their order (esp. 2-4) can vary • capture the audience's attention • provide necessary background information • state and prove the text's thesis or central idea • anticipate and address possible countertheses • conclude w/appeal to the audience's emotions

  14. Introductions: purposesSSW, 68 ff • an introduction “acquaints and coaxes” • announces essay’s topic • may directly state the thesis • sets the tone • seeks to arouse reader’s interest, draw the reader into the text • paves the way for writer’s/speaker’s ideas • see & consider using examples, SSW, 68-72

  15. Developing the “middle” • longest section of essay, paper or story • develops ideas • sustains the reader’s interest • A paragraph or series of paragraphs (in the “middle”) may combine two or more of methods of arrangement. • You can organize your ideas using: description, narration, process analysis, definition, classification, comparison

  16. Some development strategiesSSW, 62-64 • Chronological - as events unfold in time • telling a story • "step-by-step” - describing a process, as when teaching someone how to parallel park • spatial - details given as the eye sees them • describing a physical / visual scene, moving from one part of what's seen to the next (as in films) • climactic order - common in personal writing • build to a crescendo, or • reversed, “landing the heaviest punch first” (63)

  17. Some development strategies, con’t • From easy to difficult • describe a progressively complex series of skills (particularly physical skills) • In order of importance • least to most: builds interest in reader • Most to least: captures readers attention (esp. for manuals & tech. writing.) • From general to specific: the big picture. • Effective for abstractions & theories (science, e.g.) • From specific to general: polemic+ persuation

  18. Transitions • may be a paragraph, one word or a phrase • bridges the reader or listener from one paragraph or set of paragraphs to the next • professional /technical writing - may rely headings & numbers to order text • but the sequence still must be logical and convincing • a mere heading does not always = a transition • essay writing/formal speeches - must imbed the transitions within the text

  19. Transitions - paragr. / words • Transitional paragraphs in longer essays • announce a “shift” from one group of ideas to another • build coherence; look “behind” and ahead - can • summarize ideas • repeat thesis • forecast ideas to follow • Transitional words, in shorter essays or within a section of a longer essay connect ideas while signaling a change of subject • see SSW, 64-67 & 72

  20. Conclusion of a discourseSSW, 72-75 • signals that the discussion is complete • doesn’t take off in a new direction, but can add an interesting closing thought • “drives the point home a final time” • can include a final appeal to the audience’s emotions • for shorter papers, can be a paragraph • for longer essays, can be multiple paragraphs • avoid mechanically using “In conclusion….” See SSW, 72-75

  21. Inadequate Development within a Paragraph • Length is not the matter: effectiveness is. • Does the paragraph have: • Topic sentence? • Connection (explicit or implicit) to previous paragraph(s)? • Sufficient supporting examples? • Summation or Linkage to next paragraph? • Readability & comprehension are the keys.

  22. Paragraph Coherence: (inter- and intra- paragraph) • Smooth flow from one sentence to another and one paragraph to another. • Clarity of expression • what kind of word choice does this require? • Explicit connections between ideas. • *Remember*: writing is the transmission of idea. • Use: • Connecting words & phrases • Repeated key words • Pronouns • Parallelism

  23. Paragraph Coherence: Connecting words & phrases • Showing Similarity: • likewise, just so, similarly • Showing Contrast: • at the same time, but, instead, in contrast, or • Showing results or effects: • as a result, because, therefore, thus, since, consequently • Adding Ideas: • also, beside, furthermore, first, moreover • Drawing Conclusions: • as a result, in brief, therefore • Pointing out examples: • for instance, for example • Showing emphasis & clarity • above all, again, as it is, indeed, that is • Indicating Time: • afterward, immediately, previously, at the same time, now, later, then, presently • Conceding a Point • granted that, of course, it is true that, certainly, • Qualifying your Point • however, none/never-theless

  24. Paragraph Coherence: • Repeated Key Words: • Identifying key words & concepts, from the topic paragraph, is generally useful for the writing process. • Repeating these words and concepts adds to total coherence. Within a paragraph, very effective. • Use of Pronouns: • Words that stand for nouns. Be Varied & clear • he, him, hers, one, its, they, theirs, these, those

  25. Specialised Paragraph Functions:#1. Introductions • Weak: • “In this paper” • “Wars have always afflicted mankind”, • “As you know, having too little time is a problem many of us face.” • In the modern world today. • It is my view that….” • Strong. Use: • A directly stated thesis. • “The Iraq was to depose the dictator Hussein.” • A definition. • “Too many tasks relative to time available creates busy- ness.” • A quotation: • “The past is our only knowledge.” • An arresting statement. • “I died yesterday”

  26. Specialised Paragraph Functions:Introductions, con’t • Unusual slant on a familiar theme. • “Professors are people too.” • Intriguing claim. • An “A” is easy to earn • Interesting details • BCIT has the highest graduate placement rate • A blend of strategies • A Question or Problem • Always effective • Can guide and structure your essay • Stimulates the writer’s thoughts • Engages the reader in the matter of the essay

  27. Specialised Paragraph Functions:Transitional Paragraphs • Conclusions • Restatement of the thesis • A summary (recapitulation): draw together to reinforce • A Question (yes, again!) • A Quotation • Ironic Twist or Surprising Observation • Clever or Whimsical Ending • Direct challenge • Recommendation or Hope