Pearls before Swine?Supplementary education Dutch style Hans Scheurkogel ICA/SAE symposium Harnosand 2003
Introduction: general • “Supplementary education’’: ambiguous term… in this case: distinguish between • a. professional education (pre-appointment education to become a professional archivist) • b. professional training (post-appointment training in order to become a better archivist); n.b. this is ‘supplementary’ - usually referred to as “CPD” • c. sub-professional training (post-appointment training for non-professionals in archives or records management services) • n.b.: an ideal-type distinction, inevitably to be blurred in real life ...
Introduction 2 • Forms of delivery: • a. in-house training • n.b.: still the most important form of CPD • b. occasional lectures • c. reading/studying • c. (association) meetings • d. workshops • e. CPD-programs • Here I will focus on large-scale CPD ‘programs’
Introduction 3: the Dutch scene • ‘old’ style: focus on public archives • “revolution of 1995” • independent from Ministry of Culture • co-operating with University to integrate archival education in HE system • new style: focus still largely on archives but within records continuum and - even broader - within information management context • the occasion for a Dutch CPD-program: ‘old-style’ archivist’s fears about lagging behind
The Plan 1: content • goal: develop a CPD program to bridge the knowledge-gap between old and new professionals • originally five modules: • new directions in archival theory • ‘information and organisation’ • recordkeeping systems analysis • new directions in archival description • new directions in appraisal
The Plan 2: organisation • get funding (result: modules offered for 25% of the actual costs) • develop the modules (content, didactics) • get commitment of archival community • organise teacher training • formalise status: • after every module: certificate • after completion of all modules: “new-style” certification
The Result? • numbers • total of professionals approx. 400 • module 1: participants 280 (70%) • module 1: certificates 140 (35%) • module 2: participants 75 (19%) • module 2: certificates 60 (15%) • module 3: participants 45 (11%) • module 3: certificates 30 (08%)
The Result? • Reactions: • too much theory • too much records management • too much electronic records • too little relevance for the ‘shop-floor’
Look atcomparable experiences: • Alberta (Canada) – Wayne Murdoch: “Task Force members had concerns regarding the type of student who took .. workshops and how many actually completed the entire program. … Task Force members had profound concerns that the present program was neither meeting its stated mandate nor delivering the requisite information to individuals taking courses” • Australia (ARES Forum) – Michael Piggot: “Too many people in professional level positions think of their employment as ´just a job´, see no compelling reasons why they should upgrade their qualifications or seek opportunities for continuing professional development …”
How then to explain this enthousiasm: “CPD brings many benefits. For the individual it improves confidence and enables them to broaden their horizons,feel fulfilled and stay interested and on their toes; for the employer, facilitating CPD will lead to a more effective and motivated work force; and for the profession, CPD will enhance our status and promote standards. Then again the benefits of CPD can be summed up in a more basic way – evolve or die!” (www.archives.org.uk/cpd/index.asp) comment: the more - and longer - you are trying to convince, the less convincing you apparently are ...
Hypothesis 1: Programs are over-ambitious • Organisation cf. differentiation (functional, intellectual, organisational, experience … how large is that market?) cf. module production • Context • “Qualified educators must be identified to plan and deliver post-appointment and continuing education and training. Educators should be experts in their field, possessing mastery of the subject being taught. This expertise may be indicated by a combination of elements such as experience in archival practice in the given subject matter, publications, a record of presentations at conferences, work in related professional associations, formal academic credentials, or other demonstrable indications of advanced knowledge. Educators should demonstrate an ability to teach effectively. This may be confirmed by a successful teaching record or teacher training. In the context of continuing education and training, however, teaching skills must be broadly conceived to reflect the wide range of venues and structures appropriate for such education. Therefore, teaching skills consist not only of the ability to construct and present an effective in-person workshop, they also include the ability to critique written or hands-on assignments effectively, to conceptualize and deliver course content via distance education, to research and write a formal manual, and to provide thoughtful and committed mentoring”. • Content: • “Records Management PACE programs teach those aspects of organizational culture, structure, procedures, processes, and communication systems that relate to records creation and use. Instruction should include records control through information systems and record forms, recordkeeping systems (including classification, retention and disposition, identification and retrieval, maintenance, storage, and transfer systems), reformatting techniques and standards, design and implementation of multimedia integrated records management programs (including methods of analysis of records systems and of taking inventories), and information technologies.”
Hypothesis 2: Programs are over-confident • About: • Employers commitment PACE Guidelines: Employers are responsible for encouraging and supporting post-appointment and continuing education and training for archivists .. • Employee motivation PACE Guidelines: Individual archivists are responsible for assessing their educational needs (..) and keeping their archival knowledge and skills up-to-date • But, who triggers that/them?:
Recommendation: BOTTUM UP • Sketch of the outlines: • Getting started • the professional has a professional problem to solve and can’t solve it on his own • Delivery: Internet • (see next page) • Organisation: • as little as possible • stakeholders? association? free market?
ELO: coach and participants COACH and STUDYKIT: * problem * solving aids * triggers Information leaflet: * problem * solving WORKSHOP: coach and participants STUDYKIT (extended)