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Properties of Water PowerPoint Presentation
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Properties of Water

Properties of Water

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Properties of Water

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  1. Section 2.3 Properties of Water

  2. Polarity • Water is a Polar molecule • The oxygen atom is electronegative and “hogs” the electrons from the covalent bonds with hydrogen http://faculty.clintoncc.suny.edu/faculty/michael.gregory/files/bio%20101/bio%20101%20lectures/chemistry/water%20molecule%202.gif

  3. Hydrogen Bonds • Because it is polar, the opposite charges on adjacent water molecules attract each other http://www.biology.arizona.edu/biochemistry/tutorials/chemistry/graphics/water.gif

  4. Cohesion • Water molecules “stick” to water molecules because of hydrogen bonding

  5. Adhesion • Water is attracted to other materials because it is polar.

  6. Capillarity • Combination of adhesion and cohesion that allows water to travel up- stick to the sides of graduated cylinders and traveling up trees.

  7. Vocabulary from Section 3.1 Biology Honors Carbon Compounds

  8. Organic Compounds • Made primarily of carbon atoms • Carbon has four valence electrons • Forms 4 covalent bonds with other elements • Can bond with other carbon atoms • Can form single, double, and triple bonds https://www.boundless.com/biology/organic-chemistry/carbon-bonding-and-organic-compounds/molecular-diversity-hydrocarbons/

  9. Large Carbon Molecules • Built of smaller, simpler molecules called monomers • Monomers bond together to form polymers http://www.hsc.csu.edu.au/senior_science/options/polymers/2973/SS951.html http://lc.brooklyn.cuny.edu/smarttutor/corc1321/macromolec.html

  10. Vocabulary from section 3.2 Biology Honors Molecules of Life

  11. Carbohydrates • Organic compounds made of C, H, O • Source of energy • Structural materials • Exist as • Monosaccharides • Disaccharides • Polysaccharides http://www.precisionnutrition.com/all-about-carbohydrates

  12. Monosaccharide • Glucose- simple sugar used in cellular respiration • Fructose- simple sugar found in fruits and vegetables http://www.nsta.org/publications/press/extras/morechemistry.aspx http://www.aldrodriguezliverfoundation.com/blog/a-double-take-on-controlling-fructose-in-daily-diet/

  13. Disaccharide • Two monosaccharides bonded together • Sucrose- table sugar consisting of glucose bonded to fructose http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sucrose http://bioweb.wku.edu/courses/biol115/wyatt/biochem/carbos.htm

  14. Polysaccharide • Starch- store energy in plants, source of calories for animals • Cellulose- provide structure in cell walls of plants • Glycogen- store energy in the liver and muscles of animals http://bioweb.wku.edu/courses/biol115/wyatt/biochem/carbos.htm

  15. Proteins • Organic compounds made of C, H, O, N • Diverse structures & functions • Move muscles • Carry oxygen • Antibodies in the immune system • Hair, horns, nails • Cell structure • Enzymes speed up chemical reactions • Cell transport http://library.thinkquest.org/C004535/cell_membranes.html http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evosite/evo101/IIIC2aCasestudy.shtml

  16. Amino Acids • Monomers for building proteins • 20 types • Different combinations lead to different structures which lead to different functions http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Class/MLACourse/Original8Hour/Genetics/structure.html

  17. Enzymes • RNA or protein molecules that act as catalysts • Substrate (reactant) fits in the active site, lowers the activation energy speeding up a reaction to make products http://www.chem4kids.com/files/bio_enzymes.html http://www.chem.ufl.edu/~itl/4411/lectures/lec_m.html

  18. Enzymes • Sensitive to • Temperature • pH • Must maintain homeostasis to function properly

  19. Lipids • Large organic molecules made of C, H, O • Do not dissolve in water • Includes • Triglycerides • Phospholipids • Steroids • Waxes • Pigments • Store more energy than carbohydrates http://www.formulamedical.com/Topics/Nutrition/fats.htm

  20. Fatty Acids • Unbranched carbon chains that form most lipids • Hydrocarbon tails are nonpolar and Hydrophobic • Carboxyl heads are polar and hydrophilic • Saturated- all carbons have single bonds • Unsaturated- carbons have double bonds http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/biology/bio4fv/page/fatty_a.htm

  21. Triglycerides • 3 fatty acids joined to 1 glycerol • Saturated triglycerides are hard at room temperature (Butter, fats in red meat) • Unsaturated triglycerides are liquid at room temperature (oils) http://www.muscleandfitness.com/nutrition/lose-fat/finding-good-saturated-fats http://www.medibid.com/blog/2012/10/cholesterol-and-triglyceride-whats-it-all-about/ http://realfoodblog.com/tag/saturated-fats/ https://www.google.com/search?q=triglycerides&safe=off&espv=210&es_sm=122&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ei=DrhxUqC9LJCjkQfxyYGYDg&ved=0CAkQ_AUoAQ&biw=1366&bih=643#es_sm=122&espv=210&q=saturated+triglycerides+in+food&safe=off&tbm=isch&facrc=_&imgdii=_&imgrc=a4XZiYb6v1mKrM%3A%3BUVotSE0iBYY1tM%3Bhttps%253A%252F%252Fwww.artisanalfoods.com%252Fshop%252Flearn%252Fwp-content%252Fuploads%252F2009%252F03%252Ftriglycerides1.jpg%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.artisanalfoods.com%252Fshop%252Flearn%252Fcategory%252Ffat%252F%3B517%3B258

  22. Phospholipids • Two fatty acids joined to glycerol • Make up the cell membrane of ALL cells! • Phospholipid bi-layer • Recall: • Glycerol is hydrophilic • Fatty acids are hydrophobic http://www.biologycorner.com/APbiology/cellular/notes_cell_membrane.html http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/biology/bio4fv/page/phosphb.htm

  23. Waxes • Structural lipid • Long fatty-acid chain joined to alcohol chain • Provide water-proofing on plants • Earwax keeps microorganisms out of ears http://waynesword.palomar.edu/ecoph22.htm

  24. Steroids • Not made of fatty acids • 4 fused carbon rings and functional groups • Hormones • Testosterone • Cholesterol http://www.cytochemistry.net/cell-biology/membrane_intro.htm

  25. Nucleic Acids • Large organic molecules made of C, H, O, N, P • Store and transfer information • Genetic information • Codes for proteins • Two major types • DNA • RNA • Monomer = Nucleotide

  26. Dexoyribonucleic Acid • DNA • Contains genetic material • Directs all cell activities • Double stranded

  27. Ribonucleic Acid • RNA • Stores and transfers information to build proteins • Can act as catalysts • Single stranded