A quick look at stakeholders’ involvement in HEIs’ QA Bruno CURVALE (CNÉ) Thierry MALAN (IGAENR) René-Paul MARTIN (CTI) France
CNÉ in the light of the democratisation of higher education • The relationships between the industrial and business world and the universities • The academic, the expert, the peer and the stakeholder • CTI point of view
CNÉ in the light of the democratisation of higher education in France
CNÉ : origin and purposes • Created by law in 1984 • Independent authority since 1989 • Mission : l Institutional evaluation l Advices about policies in higher education : - The President of the Republic, - Minister in charge of higher education, - Decisions makers
Students in Higher Education Starting up of the Bologna process Source : MEN 2004
Institutional evaluation purposes • A tool for the improvement of the link between the Nation and its higher education system (service public d’enseignement supérieur) • The issues of the institutional evaluation process deal with : • The quality of main results achieved by institutions (education and research) • The quality of HEI’ policy making as regard governance, education policy, research policy, students’ support, QA • The quality of the development of the higher education system itself • The institutional evaluation is aimed at helping HEIs to improve and to develop their autonomy
CNÉ : Principles and Methods • Principles for action • peer review • public report • Methodology • self-evaluation • external evaluation • follow-up
The “Livre des Références” • Education policy A.I Programmes offered A.II Implementation of the programmes offered A.III The students: from enrolment to employability • Research policy B.I Research: Organisation, dissemination, economic development, knowledge transfer • Management of the institution at the service of its missions C.IAutonomy C.II The institutions and its academic, research and service departments C.III Partnerships C.IV Management of human resources C.V Financial management C.VI Management of information systems and logistical functions
The “Livre des Références” • A - EDUCATION POLICY • The institution assures the education of the students and the development of their independence. It encourages students to become involved in the management structures of the institution and in the social life within it. • It organises the dissemination of knowledge in society. It offers students, in initial or continued education, a set of programmes and disciplines with clearly identified objectives whether predominantly of a disciplinary or of a multidisciplinary nature. These programmes may include placements or individual studies specially designed to promote the employability of the students. Continuing vocational training is an integral part of the programmes offered by the university. • The institution manages the admission and the integration of students, and has in place the processes for academic and career counselling and occupational integration throughout the students' career.
The “Livre des Références” A.I Programmes offered Reference A.I.1 : The institution offers programmes that correspond to its missions and environment Reference A.I.2 : Continuing vocational training is an integral part of the programmes offered … Reference A.I.9 : The Masters programmes offered have connection with research and collaboration with industry and commerce … Reference A.I.11 : The programmes offered integrate the knowledge and skills acquired by the student. Reference A.I.12 : The programmes offered include preparation for the employability.
2. The relationships between the industrial and business world and the universities
A quick historical approach A relation embedded in history • The duality Universities / Grandes écoles • Academic and Non academic higher education • The (re)building of French universities (1968, 1984, 1990) • Massification of higher education and employability (1995 ?)
Usual occasions and contacts A traditional, and not invasive, relationship as regard a few issues … Continuing education • A often dynamic and profitable sector • Raising of funds • The apprenticeship tax issue • Research contracts, … • Participation to the administration council (board) • A varied experience from one university to another
IGAENR An in depth transformation in progress From coexistence to participation to partnership : a more intrusive and altering relationship. A long and continuing process of creation of new professional degrees in the universities from the 60’, involving more relationships with the professions. The present challenge is the adaptation to the Bologna process from 1998 onwards
IGAENR BTS courses (1959) (Brevet de Technicien Supérieur) • two-year professional qualification course technician qualification programmes • in college departments in secondary schools and some private establishments • the BTS is closely tailored to direct career applicability (110 specialities) • Designed by professional consultative commissions (CPC) with the participation of representatives of the professions
IGAENR A government policy of creation of University Institutes of Technology (IUT) 1966 • Two-years courses in 26 Specialities (17 Industrial sectors, 9 Services sectors) in 114 IUT within universities • Special admission conditions • DUT (Diplôme Universitaire de Technologie) • Designed by pedagogic national commissions (CPN) with the participation of professions.
IGAENR Taking stock of the development of IUTs • After these two-years first university degrees, more and more students ask for admission in further courses • A two-year professional qualification course can be extended by one of further specialisation, or enable the student to cross over into the longer higher education programmes.
IGAENR The creation of new degrees in universities From 1970 to 1975 • 1970 Master of Computer techniques and management (MIAGE) • 1971 Master of Sciences and Technologies (MST) • 1971 Master of management Sciences (MSG) • 1973 Social and economic administration (AES) • 1973 Applied languages (LEA) • 1974 DESS
IGAENR The creation of new degrees by universities • 1984 DEUST • 1985 Magistère • 1989 New Engineer Courses in Universities • 1991 IUP (University Professional Institutes) From 1984 to 1991
IGAENR Implementation of the Bologna Process • Professional Bachelor • Bachelor • Research Master • Professional Master • Follow-up groups to regulate the elaboration of the new degrees • Equivalence system with existing degrees (DEA, DESS, “ingénieurs diplômés”) at Master level
IGAENR Lifelong learning • VAP (1985) (Accreditation of professional activities) • VAE (2002) (Accreditation of prior experiential learning) From 1985 of a policy development of access to studies and degrees through recognition of prior learning, work and social experience.
IGAENR Research activities From coexistence to participation to partnership : a more intrusive and altering relationship The economic developments linked with research activities • “Incubateurs” • Organisations in charge of helping start-up business • SAIC (2002) • Services in charge of developing business and commercial activities issue from the research activities HEIs • Possibilities offered to academics and searchers to earn money from theirs research results
Confrontation and collaboration • The participation of non academics to the management of quality is increasing and improving: • It’s true more at the level of some specific programmes rather than at the level of the whole institution ; • The participation of non academics has to be organised as a part of the institution strategies: • The mutual understanding of the educational world and the business worlds is still difficult (e.g. varied short and mid-term issues concerns, …) ; • The institutional evaluation process should back up this new development: • New adaptations of the institutional evaluation processes are needed In brief, according to the experience of institutional evaluation :
French engineering education system Engineering 5 years Secondary 7 years Primary Ingénieurdiplômé 5 years Baccalauréat AGE (years) 7 0 11 18 23
Engineering degree in France - one cycle of 5 years of higher education - degree after 300 ECTS credits - "Ingénieur diplômé" stands for Master degree (not the reverse) - no board of engineers in France, however the « ingénieur diplomé» title is protected - entry in engineering profession directly after engineering degree recognized by the « Conventions collectives ».
Main engineering Education in France (1) A variety of cursus, structures, organisations and engineering specialties but common standards and procedures. • Classical education- Competitive entry examination- 2+3 or 5 years depending on recruitement level- 800 education hours/year- 20 to 36 weeks internship periods in industry
Main engineering Education in France (2) • Apprenticeship- education level of recruitment : 2 years after « baccalauréat »- 3 years : half time education (1800 hours) half time company • Continuing Education- education level of recruitment : 2 years after « baccalauréat »- 3 years of industrial experience- 2 years : half time education (1200 hours) half time company
Present status • 227 engineering institutions - 728 programmes 30 000 degrees in 2004 - 50% higher education ministry - 25% other ministries - 25% private institutions • 65 apprenticeship and continuing education engineering programmes 1 300 degrees in 2004
Engineers in France – 2005 Survey • Recruitement • Social origins • Mobility • Employement and job functions • Job satisfaction
Mission statements of CTI given by law to: • Accredit new programmes • Assess periodically existing degree programmes (every 6 years) leading to the title of ingénieur diplômé, and the institution • Assess foreign engineering degrees when ever requested by foreign institutions • Participate in any perspective study and review on engineering programmes • Foster the dissemination of development and best practices.
Expected Role and Responsability of Labor Market Representatives, Graduate Employability • To bring the views of the employers on the general profiles of graduates, to invest in the future not for short term needs. • To develop partnerships and synergies • Technological platforms, technology ad skills transfer, research, • Pedagogic:internship, apprenticeship, life-long learning • Corporate and international developments • To create an industry mindset among students.
Context of the ingénieur diplômé (Master degree) education and professional activity • Institutional: HEI council and programmes advisory boards membership and chairmanship, RD partnerships, • Education and training : lectures, practices, jurys, advices, tutorships, … • Legal:the title is protected by law, the position in industry is defined through professional regulations, conventions collectives.
Context of Involvement of labor market representatives in Engineering Education • At two main levels of involvement: • at the HEI - internal quality assurance and self evaluation • at the CTI – standards and guidelines, external evaluation, accreditation and CTI quality improvement.
Two levels of involvements (1) • At HEI, as a labor market representative: • At HEI councils (conseil d’administration): strategy, learning objectives and outcomes, resources, facilities, appointment • At programmes advisory boards (conseil de pefectionnement) • In practice : lecturer, tutor, board of examiners, etc.
Two levels of involvements (2) • Contribution to learning outcomes objectives: knowledge, skills, competences, transferable competences, long life learning, ... • Contribution to HEI quality management objectives: strategy, resources allocations, management recruitment, processes, satisfaction as a stakeholder, results. • Experience transfer: jury, practionner, tutor, lecturer • Contribution to corrective actions and to innovations: • Project management, apprenticeship, internship, entrepreneurship, personal professional project, …
Two levels of involvements (3) • At CTI, as a member: • As a prescriptor • As an evaluator • As an accreditor • CTI code of conduct
CTI line up • Parity between academic and industrial representatives • Independent panel comprising 32 members divided into 4 colleges 8 academic rep. from Ministry of Higher Education 8 Industry representatives 8 rep. From other Ministries and private institutions 8 Engineer Associations rep. Trade Unions rep.
Periodical accreditation (1) (every 6 years and compulsory) • Purpose • make known the trend of CTI’s policy « References & Orientations » • make sure that educational programmes are still in line with industrial environment • give advise to institution management for curricula improvement and updating • encourage companies involvement in training programmes • reinforce synergies between engineering institutions
Periodical accreditation (2) • Methods • Self evaluation of HEI in engineering • Site visits • Self evaluation guide for HEI – March 2005 • Taking in account new challenges: • Quality assurance • Adaptation of programmes to stakeholders needs including the professions. • International development of HEI, students recruitment, programmes, qualifications and labour market access. • Development of the EHEA
CTI Standards and Procedures In 6 chapters • HEI Organisation and strategy project • External partnerships: professional, research, international • Recruitment of students • Education and training programmes: objectives, methods of delivery, etc. • Employement of graduates • HEIs continuous improvement and quality approach
Example: Awareness and partnerships • Strong links with industry • Deep cooperation with research • European and international cooperation • National links • Regional and local policy
From Education to Employement • Time to access to the first job • Links with internship, apprenticeship • Quality of employement • Employement typologies
From Education to Employement • Time to access to the first job of ingénieurs diplômés: 40% are employed before being graduated 95% of job seekers are employed 8 months after being graduated 8% of graduates under 30 are unemployed (average 5%) 20% are appointed outside France • Links with internship 32% are employed in the same company 40% for apprenticeship
From Education to Employement • Quality of employement • Autonomy • Interest in the job • Correspondance with professional project • Salary • Increase of competences
Interviews give some keys for quality improvement • Young graduates • The labor market is perceived as not transparent • Autonomy is appreciated • Geographic mobility is accepted • Education and training cursus are a series of obstacles • Employers • Personnality is the first criteria • Appointment is sometimes considered more as a risk than an investment • Graduates have sometimes poor informations on recruitment tools, and are poorly prepared
Conclusions IGAENR • Quality assurance is a powerful opportunity and tool for mutual understanding and for improvement. Decisions are collective. • Continuous improvement of programmes taking in account labour market and students recommandations is a challenge. • Improvement of the relationship between higher education institutions and the labor market representatives requires strategic thinking and monotoring.
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