Download
ideologies and upheavals europe in the age of metternich n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Ideologies and Upheavals: Europe in the “Age of Metternich” PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Ideologies and Upheavals: Europe in the “Age of Metternich”

Ideologies and Upheavals: Europe in the “Age of Metternich”

129 Vues Download Presentation
Télécharger la présentation

Ideologies and Upheavals: Europe in the “Age of Metternich”

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Ideologies and Upheavals: Europe in the “Age of Metternich” 1815-1850

  2. Europe After Napoleon • Congress of Vienna – Legitimacy, Compensation, “Balance of Power” • Enforced through Congress System and Holy Alliance (mostly E.E.) • Main goals: • Promote Conservatism (autocratic monarchies, rights of aristocracy) • Resist Liberalism (French Revolution) • Resist Nationalism (threat to existing order)

  3. CONSERVATISM • Desired to preserve the “old order” • Believed in order, society, faith, and tradition • Reaction to Liberalism of American & French Revolution • Supported by aristocracy and peasants • Edmund Burke – Reflections on the Revolution in France – defended old order against tumult of revolutions

  4. CONSERVATISM • Best exemplified by Metternich – “Age of Metternich” • Concerned with multi-ethnic character of Austrian Empire • Feared nationalism and liberalism would tear Hapsburg Empire apart • Carlsbad Decrees (1819) for German Confederation

  5. LIBERALISM • Desired to promote individual freedom and well-being – “Classical liberalism” • Reformers, not revolutionaries – supported by middle class • Believed in natural rights (Locke), guaranteed by written constitutions (Dec. of Ind., Dec. of Rights of Man) • Advocated laissez-faire capitalism (Smith) – individual choice (“invisible hand” of the market) – opposed unions

  6. LIBERALISM • Wanted representative governments, but NOT democracy • Wanted to keep vote in hands of landowners, businessmen, middle class– keep workers, peasants, and lower middle classes from voting • Not as radical as democrats and republicans, but could work together to oppose conservatism

  7. LIBERALISM • Utilitarianism – the utility of any law or institution should be “the greatest good for the greatest number of people” – Jeremy Bentham, British philosopher/reformer • John Stuart Mill – On Liberty (1859) – argued for “absolute freedom of opinion”, against government tyranny and censorship

  8. NATIONALISM • Desired to turn cultural unity into self-government • Believed common language, history, and traditions would bring about unity • Supported by liberals, especially radical democrats • Grew out of resistance to Napoleon • Threat to multi-ethnic empires like Austria, Russia, and Ottoman Empire • Force of unity for divided German and Italian states

  9. NATIONALISM • Johann Gottfried Herder – “father of modern nationalism” • Volksgeist – “national spirit” - distinct national character of a people • All nations should be sovereign and contain all members of the same nationality – all nations equal, none superior • Johann Gottlieb Fichte – “father of German nationalism” • “Address to the German Nation” (1808) – encouraged German patriotism, anti-Semitism

  10. SOCIALISM • Desired to reorganize society to establish sense of cooperation and community • Believed liberalism and capitalism promoted selfishness and fragmentation of society • Wanted system of greater economic equality, planned by government (anti-laissez faire) • Supported mostly by working class • Origins in France

  11. UTOPIAN SOCIALISM • Count Henri de Saint-Simon – Industrialization and science would lead to ‘golden age’ for Europe • “Parasites” give way to the “doers” to improve society – benefits to all, especially the poor • Charles Fourier – wanted planned economy and socialist communities – highly mathematical • Early proponent of women’s rights

  12. UTOPIAN SOCIALISM • Louis Blanc – urged workers to fight for rights by peacefully taking control of government • Government should ensure full employment through workshops and factories • Pierre Joseph Proudhon – What is Property? (1840) • Property was profit stolen from worker, the source of all wealth (idea later used by Marx) • Feared power of state – often considered an anarchist

  13. MARXISM • “Scientific Socialism” – had a profound impact on Europe in 19th and 20th centuries • Developed by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels – The Communist Manifesto (1848) – blueprint for militant working class success • Based on: • Economic interpretation of history – mostly who controls means of production • Class struggle between rich and poor • Labor is true value of a product – stolen by capitalists

  14. MARXISM • Atheistic philosophy • Felt socialism was inevitable course of history • Believed proletariat would rise up and overthrow bourgeoisie • Create a “dictatorship of the proletariat” - a classless society and an end to capitalism • “From each according to his abilities, to each according to his needs”