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Implementation of MARAC (Multi Agency Risk Assessment) in Lincolnshire

Implementation of MARAC (Multi Agency Risk Assessment) in Lincolnshire

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Implementation of MARAC (Multi Agency Risk Assessment) in Lincolnshire

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  1. Implementation of MARAC (Multi Agency Risk Assessment)inLincolnshire Dianna Broadmeadow County Domestic Abuse Manager

  2. Definition of Domestic Abuse • ‘Any incident of threatening behaviour, violence or abuse (psychological, physical, sexual, financial or emotional) between adults who are or have been intimate partners or family members, regardless of gender or sexuality.’ • Adults are defined as those who are 18 years old

  3. Costs and benefits – why? • Costs – 1 case • Police callouts (6) £540 • GP visits (8) £384 • Anti-depressants (6) £318 • A and E visits (6) £5660 • Stay in refuge (12 nights) £600 • Police involvement with S18 prosecution £2359 • CJS costs of prosecution £4170 • Total £14,031 • The annual costs of twice weekly MARAC estimated at £71,000 per annum • Benefits • Independent evaluation showed 42% of women subject to a MARAC were violence free one year later • MARAC can review up to 300 high risk cases per year; potential total saving £4.2 million (42% = £1.76 million) • Based 0n 2007/8 costings

  4. Impact • Women who have experienced violence by a known man are 15 times more likely to abuse alcohol, 9 times more likely to abuse drugs, 3 times more likely to be diagnosed as depressed or psychotic and 5 times more likely to attempt suicide. (Stark and Flitcraft 1996)

  5. Impact on children • Clear link between domestic abuse and child abuse (c1/3) • Consistent comparisons between non-exposed groups and exposed groups show higher levels of emotional and behavioural problems • Research evidences that pregnancy is a significant factor for domestic abuse

  6. Impact • There may be a risk of injury to the unborn child and mother • Children may get in the way of an attack on their mother • Their mother’s abuser may also abuse them • Abused women may punish their children more harshly to forestall worse from their partner • They may be neglected physically or emotionally • They may be seriously injured or killed • SAFEGUARDING ISSUE

  7. Drivers • National Domestic Violence Delivery Plan • High rate of Domestic Homicides • Forthcoming Violence against Women and Girls Consultation and Strategy • Domestic Homicide Reviews • Statistics- national and local

  8. Homicide Reviews • Domestic Violence Homicide Reviews are not inquiries into how the victim died or who is culpable. This is a matter for coroners and criminal records. • Statutory Purpose of the review • To identify lessons to be learnt • To identify how these lessons will be acted upon and what is expected to change as a result • To improve inter-agency working • To improve protection for victims

  9. Four Key Areas of the Lincolnshire Domestic Abuse strategy 2007-2010 • Increasing choices, and providing protection, advice and support • Increasing the rate at which domestic violence is reported • Holding perpetrators accountable for their behaviour • Changing attitudes, of individuals and organisations

  10. LAA Delivery Plan • LAA NI 32 – Reduce domestic abuse • Implementation of the MARAC • Reduction of repeat victimisation through cases managed through the MARAC

  11. Links to other Protocols • MAPPA • CAF, CIN and Child Protection • Adult Safeguarding • The MARAC does NOT replace the above, but does complement the above protocols • Domestic abuse is a Safeguarding issue

  12. Information Sharing • Data Protection Act 1998 • Human Right Act 1998 • Crime and Disorder Act 1998, Section 115 • Children Act 1989 and 2004 • Common Law Duty of Confidence • Freedom of Information Act 2000 • Mental Health Act 1983 • Health and Social Care Act 2001 • Education Act 1996 and 2002 • NHS and Community Care Act 1990 • Sex Offenders Act 1997 as amended by pt 2 of the Sexual Offences Act 2003 • Police and Justice Act 2006

  13. Human Rights Act – positive obligations • Article 2. All workers must take positive action to protect individuals • Article 3 Rights not to be subject to torture and degrading treatment • Article 8 Victim/Survivor have the right to a private life • Article 14 Victims/Survivors have the right not to be discriminated against

  14. Why share information? • Responsible information sharing is • Key to enable organisations and professionals to protect DV victims and their children • It enables • Timely action to be taken before children are subjected to further abuse • Risk assessment and safety planning having full knowledge of all the facts • Agencies to protect DV victims and children and allows them to feel confident that they can provide a safe, quality service to sufferers

  15. How do we share? • Consent based approach • Non Consent based approach • In order to protect a client and or children • Bring a perpetrator to justice • Public or statutory functions • Share information for risk assessment

  16. Defensible decisions • Take all reasonable steps (HMIP 1995) • Use reliable assessment methods (OASys) • Collect and evaluate relevant information • Record and account for decision making • Stay with agency policies and procedures • Communicate with relevant others, seek information that you lack • Refer to senior manager

  17. Level of risk • Very High Risk – there is an imminent risk of serious harm. The potential event is more likely than not to happen imminently and the impact would be serious. • High Risk – there are identifiable indicators of risk of serious harm. The potential event could happen as any time and the impact would be serious. • Medium Risk – there are identifiable indicators of risk of serious harm. The offender has the potential to cause serious harm but is unlikely to do so unless there is a change in circumstances. • Low risk-current evidence does not include likelihood of causing serious harm

  18. Why use a Risk Assessment • To prevent or reduce harm. • To focus limited resources on those that most need them. • To make assessments more reliable, and therefore more just • A structured risk assessment should help professionals to collect and organise information about a case, and then to make judgements in a consistent way • Which risk assessment? • DASH

  19. What is a Multi Agency Risk Assessment Conference (MARAC) • A MARAC is a regular meeting, usually monthly attended by key partner agencies, which combines up to date risk information with a comprehensive assessment of a high risk victim’s needs. • The responsibility to take appropriate action rests with individual agencies. • The role of the MARAC is to facilitate, monitor and evaluate information sharing to enable appropriate actions to be taken to ensure public safety. • There may on occasion be the need to call an Emergency MARAC (usually within 72 hours) where the risk is so high that actions need to be immediately agreed

  20. Aims of MARAC (Multi Agency Risk Assessment Conference) • To share information to increase the safety, health and well being of high risk victims, adults and their children: • To determine whether the perpetrator poses a significant risk to any particular individual or to the general community: • To jointly construct and implement a risk management plan that provides professional support to all those at high risk and that reduces the risk of harm; • To reduce repeat victimisation; • To improve agency accountability and; • Improve support for staff involved in high risk domestic abuse cases • To provide an audit trail • To ask…….what don’t we know?

  21. MARAC MARAC outcomes: • Housing options • Police intervention – arrest, investigate, charge / perpetrator – Specialist DA Court/criminal court. • Legal advice / protection (Family law / Civil Court /injunction) • Child & Adult Protection assessment & services • Probation – perpetrator programmes / supervision, Voluntary Perpetrator Programmes • Other support services RISK ASSESSMENT

  22. The process • When any professional receives a disclosure of domestic abuse, they should complete a Risk Assessment form and make a judgment of level of the risk faced by client • If risk level meets MARAC threshold, they should contact their manager to discuss immediate safety options, and then make a referral to the Domestic Abuse Administrator, Natalie White, natalie.white@lincolnshire.gov.uk. If there are any queries please contact Dianna Broadmeadow 01522 554509, dianna.broadmeadow@lincolnshire.gov.uk • If the risk assessment falls below the MARAC referral threshold, then the agency should manage the case, or signpost to an appropriate agency. • The DA Administrator will create an agenda for the next scheduled MARAC.

  23. The process (cont) • Each MARAC member should complete a research form on each case known to their agency and return to the DA Administrator 3 days in advance of the MARAC meeting. A nil return is also required. • The MARAC meeting facilitates the sharing of information about the victim and family, and will agree timed actions to help improve the safety of the victim and any children • Information from the meeting will always be fed back to the victim. • At the next meeting, the minutes are checked for accuracy and confirmation that the actions have been completed is sought. • If there is a further incident which meets the criteria, then the case must be brought back for review

  24. The process (cont) • Flagging – each agency must flag the case within their system. • Makes staff aware, increase their safety • Ensure appropriate response to the victim • Where there is a further incident reported – case should be re-referred to the MARAC

  25. Criteria for bringing a case back to the MARAC • Using the CAADA definition of incidents where any of the following types of behaviour has taken place: • Violence or threats of violence to the victim, or • Where there is a pattern of stalking or harassment, or • Where rape or sexual abuse is disclosed • Any of these categories would in fact be defined normally as criminal behaviour if they became known to the police.

  26. Ten Golden Rules for success • The aim of the meeting is to address the safety of the victim, children and agency staff • Identification of cases must follow a consistent risk assessment with transparent criteria, shared by all agencies • The agenda must be circulated 8 days before a meeting so that all agencies can research their information and come prepared • Actions must be agreed with timescales • Agencies should be proactive in volunteering for actions • There should be consistent representation by agencies • Agencies should flag and tag files to ensure that repeat attendance is identified • It is the responsibility of those attending to address gaps in their agency's response • Each MARAC must have recording systems to ensure outcomes are monitored • The IDVA should always attempt to contact the victim before each MARAC to ensure their views are represented

  27. Progress to date in Lincolnshire • Multi agency delivery group established, accountable to the Domestic Abuse Strategic Management Board • MARAC commenced in West Division (Lincoln and Gainsborough) from April 24th 2008 • South (Grantham, Spalding and Stamford) commenced in November 2008 • East commenced in April 2009 • Risk assessment checklist and referral form are available for all agencies • Agreement of a threshold for what constitutes high risk and therefore triggers referral to MARAC • Secure Case Management system purchased - MODUS

  28. CONTACT DETAILS • Domestic Abuse Manager Dianna Broadmeadow Tel: 01522 554509 Dianna.broadmeadow@lincolnshire.gov.uk • Domestic Abuse Administrator Natalie White Tel: 01522 554509 natalie.white@lincolnshire.gov.uk • IDVA Paula Tribe and Sarah Allatt