When you leave this training you will be able to: 1. Understand and be able to define PBIS 2. Describe your role and responsibility on the PBIS team and in our school 3. Implement the problem solving model to drive data-based decisions 4. Implement lessonswith critical features to teach school-wide expectations 5. Support the action planning process aligned to the critical features of PBIS using various data sources.
Agenda • Advanced Organizer: welcome, getting started • PBIS Rationale and Overview • 7 School Wide Critical Features • Team • Ongoing Monitoring • Teaching • Encouraging/Discouraging • Post Organizer- summary, next steps Action Planning
What “kind” of students can display problematic behavior? All students. Students with/without labels who are served in general/special education can display problematic behavior. This is not a special education issue. It is an education issue. We need to learn more about the critical features of Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports to be able to help all students.
What happens if we do not intervene? If antisocial behavior is not changed by the end of grade 3, it should be treated as a chronic condition much like diabetes. That is, it cannot be cured but managed with the appropriate supports and continuing intervention(Walker, Colvin, & Ramsey, 1995).
Typical responses are inefficient because they…. • Foster environments of external control • Reinforce antisocial behavior • Shift accountability away from school • Weaken the relationship between academic & social behavior programming
Is Disciplinary Removal Effective? • 30-50% of students suspended are repeat offenders • “Suspension functions as a reinforcer… rather than as a punisher” (Tobin, Sugai & Colvin, 1996) • Use of suspension correlates with • School dropout (school level) (Raffaele-Mendez; Ekstrom, 1986) • Juvenile incarceration (state level) (Skiba et al)
Positive, predictable school-wide climate High rates of academic & social success Formalsocial skills instruction Positiveactive supervision & reinforcement Positive adult role models Multi-component, multi-year school-family-community effort So…How should we respond? • Surgeon General’s Report on Youth Violence (2001) • Coordinated Social Emotional & Learning (Greenberg et al., 2003) • Center for Study & Prevention of Violence (2006) • White House Conference on School Violence (2006) PBIS.org 2008
Why PBIS? To do With a partner, discuss the following question: How has PBIS improved the climate or culture of your building?
Positive Behavioral Supports and Interventions • University of Oregon(Sugai, Horner, Lewis, Colvin, Sprague, Todd,Palmer) • Proactive systems approach to school-wide discipline (NOT a curriculum) designed to be responsive to current social and educational challenges • Focus on prevention • Focus on instruction • Incorporates empirically validated practices
School-wide Positive Behavior Support PBS is a broad range of systemic and individualized strategies for achieving important social and learning outcomes while preventing problem behavior OSEP Center on PBIS
PBIS is….. • Not specific practice or curriculum…it’s general approach to preventing problem behavior • Not limited to any particular group of students…it’s for all students • Not new…its based on long history of behavioral practices & effective instructional design & strategies
Three-tiered models of prevention How can three-tiered models ofpreventionaddress these concerns? • Primary, secondary, and tertiary levels of prevention • Response-to-Intervention (RtI; Gresham, 2002a; Sugai, Horner, & Gresham, 2002) • Positive Behavior Intervention and Support (PBIS; Lewis & Sugai, 1999; Sugai & Horner, 2002) • Each level of prevention increases in intensity or magnitude • Provide more focused interventions for students in need of targeted interventions • Systematic approach • Data driven method to identify and support students Source: Lane, K. L., Kalberg, J. R., & Menzies, H. M. (2009). Developing schoolwide programs to prevent and manage problem behaviors: A step-by-step approach. New York: Guilford Press.
Three Tiered Models of Prevention: A Comprehensive Approach Address varying responses to intervention Three-tiered school-base intervention model Primary Prevention Academic Behavioral Social Goal: Prevent Harm Secondary Prevention Academic Behavioral Social Goal: Reverse Harm Tertiary Prevention Academic Behavioral Social Goal: Reduce Harm Lane, Kalberg, & Menzies, 2009
Comprehensive, Integrated, Three-Tier Model of Prevention (Lane, Kalberg, & Menzies, 2009) Let’s do the Math: What percentage in primary, secondary, and tertiary? Goal: Reduce Harm Specialized Individual Systems for Students with High-Risk ≈ Tertiary Prevention (Tier 3) ≈ Goal: Reverse Harm Specialized Group Systems for Students At-Risk Secondary Prevention (Tier 2) Goal: Prevent Harm School/Classroom-Wide Systems for All Students, Staff, & Settings Positive Action; Social Skills Improvement System ≈ Primary Prevention (Tier 1) PBIS Framework Social Academic Behavioral
Primary Prevention • All students are eligible for participation (Lane, Robertson, et al., 2006). • Approximately 80% of students respond to this level (Gresham, Sugai, Horner, Quinn, & McInerney, 1998; Sugai & Horner, 2006). • Examples of Primary Prevention • Validated literacy curricula • Violence prevention • Conflict resolution programs • Anti-bullying programs • Schoolwide social skills instruction • Character Education Programs Source: Lane, K. L., Kalberg, J. R., & Menzies, H. M. (2009). Developing schoolwide programs to prevent and manage problem behaviors: A step-by-step approach. New York: Guilford Press.
Secondary Prevention • Students who do not respond to the primary prevention plan, 10-15% of students. • Focused intervention to address academic, behavior, or social concerns: • Acquisition (can’t do) • Fluency (trouble doing) • Performance (won’t do) • Examples of Secondary Prevention • Small group instruction in anger management • Reading comprehension strategies Source: Lane, K. L., Kalberg, J. R., & Menzies, H. M. (2009). Developing schoolwide programs to prevent and manage problem behaviors: A step-by-step approach. New York: Guilford Press.
Tertiary Prevention • Students who do not respond to the primary or secondary prevention, 5-7% of students. • Intensive individualized interventions • Examples of Tertiary Prevention • Function-based interventions(Umbreit, Ferro, Liaupsin, & Lane, 2007) • Multi-systemic Therapy program (MST; Henggeler, 1998) Source: Lane, K. L., Kalberg, J. R., & Menzies, H. M. (2009). Developing schoolwide programs to prevent and manage problem behaviors: A step-by-step approach. New York: Guilford Press.
Supporting Social Competence & Academic Achievement 4 PBIS Elements OUTCOMES Supporting Decision Making Supporting Staff Behavior DATA SYSTEMS PRACTICES Supporting Student Behavior
Response to Intervention http://pbismissouri.org IMPLEMENTATION W/ FIDELITY UNIVERSAL SCREENING CONTINUUM OF EVIDENCE-BASED INTERVENTIONS RtI DATA-BASED DECISION MAKING & PROBLEM SOLVING STUDENT PERFORMANCE CONTINUOUS PROGRESS MONITORING
Linking Social Behavior and Academic Supports • Improving the social behavior of students results in: • More teaching time • More learning time • High quality instruction engages students and leads to reduction in problem behavior • Enhancement of school culture and climate
The MO SW-PBS Seven Essential Components • Administrator support, participation and leadership • http://pbismissouri.org/admin.html • Common purpose and approach to discipline • Clear set of positive expectations (for all students & staff) • Procedures for teaching expected behaviors • Continuum of procedures for encouraging expectations • Continuum of procedures for discouraging inappropriate behavior • Procedures for ongoing monitoring and evaluating effectiveness of the PBS system
Implementation Manual • Quick reference for teachers that includes procedures, supports, and other information about comprehensive three-tiered models of prevention • Purposes • Consistency • Transitions (staff, coaches, administration) • History
District PBIS Leadership Team • Mission Statement: • The HSD PBIS leadership team will utilize a data-driven process to provide differentiated support to meet the needs of all schools with their successful implementation of academic and behavioral systems. • Vision: The Hazelwood School District Positive Behavioral Intervention and Support leadership team will be a catalyst for providing a system of academic and behavioral support for the Hazelwood School Community.
Systems/Team Approach Model • School-wide PBIS Team • Represent school, meet regularly, etc • External Coach • Provide technical assistance to school • Link school to district and region • District Leadership Team • Guide planning and development • Coordinate Training • District Teams/Structure • St. Louis County Leadership Team (SSD) • State Leadership Team
Team Roles and Responsibilities • Coach/Facilitator -Responsible for developing meeting agendas meeting schedule, and facilitating the meetings. Follow-up to make sure that tasks are completed. • Co-Coach/Facilitator-Responsible for developing meeting agendas, meeting schedule, and co-facilitating the meetings. • Recorder-Keeps minutes for each meeting. Has a list of agenda items to carry over to the next meeting. Distributes copies/email of minutes to team members • Data Base Analyst-Brings copies of monthly data for each team member. Uses the critical PBIS data questions to analyze the data within the team.
Team Roles and Responsibilities • Data Analyst-Brings all reports from pbssurveys.org • Safe School Survey • Self-Assessment Survey • TIC • Other informal surveys (staff and student) • Communication-Reports progress to the staff each month. Maintains the communication with staff outside the team. • Time Keeper-Monitors agenda items and topics. Monitors start and end the time of each meeting, and topics. • Active Participant- regularly attends PBIS meetings, shares information with colleagues, completes outside “work”
Guiding Principles • Make it easy for team members to participate & stay up-to-date • Have a leader or chairperson • Hold regular meetings as the decision cycle requires • Use the problem solving model to make data based decisions • Record & distribute topics discussed and decisions or actions taken
Common Mistakes • When the team leader is absent, the meeting structure is non-existent • Too much or too little written documentation of the meeting • Too many simultaneous conversations • Tangents or off-topic conversations
Effective Meetings… • Establish & use a standard agenda format • meeting process • recording • distribution of meeting minutes routine • determine basic agenda items and date for the next meeting before the end of the meeting
Effective Meetings… • Follow an action plan that is data driven • Linked to school improvement goal • Created annually • Monitored frequently • Follow Norms • Developed by Team • Consensus • Followed and Consistent
Universal Planning • SUSTAINING • Goal: Teach PBIS Behavioral lessons once a week based on monthly data September to May • Activity: • Teach all Behavioral Routines and expectations first 2 weeks in August. • Sustain the Monday assembly to reinforce expectation for week • Sustain Monday 30 min lesson that all staff will teach • Sustain the daily announcements providing positive examples of students demonstrating the weekly behavior. • Outcomes: • 100% of students will learn non-classroom and classroom routines and expectations in August as measured by a decrease of ODRs and MIRs in non-classroom areas each month. • Classroom ODRs and MIRs will decrease by 20% from last year. • # of moderate and high risk students from screener will decrease each benchmark.
ENHANCING • Goal: Collaborate with families and community • Activity: • Sustain PBIS brochure to give to parents explaining key features. • Develop PBIS monthly newsletter: stories, acknowledgements, helpful hints, academic information… • Invite community to family night affairs; develop certificate for business… • Outcomes: • Increase parent involvement by 10% by end of December. • Survey parents twice a year to gather input, suggestions, in order to better our practices.
Problem-Solving/Decision Making Model 1. IdentifyOutcomes “Desired Reality” Mission/Vision/ CSIP/SW-PBS Purpose • Identify Problem “Current Reality” ODRs SAS Prep Team Checklist 6. Evaluate Plan Regularly Review & Revise ODRs SAS 5. Implement Plan Consistently & With Fidelity Components of: • Administrative Leadership • Common Purpose • Defining • Monitoring 3. Analyze Problem “Reality Gap” Problem Statement 4. Develop Plan Brainstorm, Prioritize, Action Plan
Establishing School-wide Expectations • Purpose • Means of communication • Consistent communication • For all students, staff, and settings • Matrix • Guidelines • Keep to five or fewer • State positively • Use common and few words relevant to all
Procedures for Teaching Expected Behaviors • Teach behavioral expectations directly in context (“teaching stations”) • Teach social behaviors like academic skills • Social behavior instruction 1. Tell 2. Show 3. Practice 4. Feedback 5. Reteach • Embed in curriculum • Practice, Practice, Practice with Feedback • Academic engagement & success are maximized
Teaching Guidelines • Behavior management problems are instructional problems. • Process for teaching social behaviors & academic skills is fundamentally same. • Emphasis is on teaching functional & prosocial replacement behaviors. • Instructional supports are important.
Teaching PBIS ExpectationsThroughout the Year… • Teach directly in context • All matrix behaviors are taught and practiced by all staff • Regular review and develop new lessons based on data
Lesson Design: Tell • Matrix Expectations • Matrix Rule and Step • List rule from Matrix and steps to complete the rule. • Context • The location where performance of rule is expected. • Tell • Rationale – why the rule is important
Lesson Design: Show • Show • Teacher demonstrates or models the rule • teacher models non-examples
Lesson Design: Practice • Give Students opportunities to role play the rule across all relevant settings. • Students only practice the correct way
Lesson Design:Monitor and Reteach • Monitor • Pre-correct and remind • Anticipate and give students a reminder to perform behavior • Supervise • Move, scan, and interact with students • Feedback • Observe students performance and give positive, specific feedback. • Reteach • Practice through out the day or when learning errors occur.
Questions to Consider for Developing Procedures for Teaching Plan • What behaviors need to be taught to students? • Who will and is able to develop (or acquire) lesson plans? • When and at what frequency should the lessons be taught? • Who will teach the lessons? • When will lessons be taught? • What supports will teachers/staff need to teach the lessons? • How will the PBIS Team know lessons were taught with integrity? • How will you know students mastered the skills taught?
What is the frequency of problem behaviors school-wide?(Replace with your school’s data)
Replace with your school’s data WHAT? Tardiness
Free!!! Published Curriculum • Teacher Portal- RTI academic/behavior- Tier 1 resources • http//ssd.k12./mo.us/curriculum/curricul.htm • Electronic curriculum • 84 social skills lessons • Lesson design • Age appropriate activities • Role play rating sheets • Age appropriate homework sheets • Assessment surveys • Progress reports • http://pbiscompendium.ssd.k12.mo.us
Reinforcement(success) Discipline Works When: • Discipline is used within framework that focuses on prevention • Prevention creates more Positive than Negative consequences 4 : 1 Punishment (Failure)
Establish Procedures for Encouraging PBIS Expectations • Recognize displays of SW expectations behaviors • Identify “expectation” student met and specific behavior they displayed (verbal feedback) • Guidelines • Lots to less • Individual to group • External- to self-managed • Frequent to infrequent • Paired with social recognition • Label specific expectation & behavior • Culturally/contextually appropriate & considerate