CCTV Systems The history and introduction of CCTV
CCTV SYSTEMS ARE YOU BEING WATCHED ?
CCTV SYSTEMS • Closed-circuit television (CCTV) is the use of video cameras to transmit a signal to a specific place, on a limited set of monitors.
CCTV SYSTEMS • Closed circuit television is an off air television system, it differs from broadcast television in that the signal is not openly transmitted or publicly distributed.
CCTV SYSTEMS • The first CCTV system was installed by Siemens AG at Test Stand VII in Peenemünde, Germany in 1942, for observing the launch of V-2 rockets. • The noted German engineer Walter Bruch was responsible for the technological design and installation of the system.
CCTV SYSTEMS • In the U.S. the first commercial closed-circuit television system became available in 1949, called Vericon. Very little is known about Vericon except it was advertised as not requiring a government permit.
CCTV SYSTEMS • The history of CCTV in the United States varies from that of the United Kingdom. One of its first appearances was in 1973 in Times Square in New York City. • The NYPD installed it in order to deter crime that was occurring in the area however crime rates did not appear to drop much due to the cameras.
CCTV SYSTEMS • Nevertheless, during the 1980s video surveillance began to spread across the country specifically targeting public areas. • It was seen as a cheaper way to deter crime compared to increasing the size of the police departments.
CCTV SYSTEMS • In it’s most basic form CCTV is simply a camera hooked up to a monitor. • We can add a VCR to the system an it becomes the night watchmen.
CCTV SYSTEMS • During the 1990s digital multiplexing, which allowed for several cameras at once to record, and introduced time lapse and motion only recording, increased the use of CCTV across the country and increased the savings of time an money. • From the mid 1990s on, police departments across the country installed an increasing number of cameras in various public spaces including housing projects, schools and public parks departments.
CCTV SYSTEMS • By adding a multiplexer we only need one monitor to view four cameras and all four camera images are recorded. CAMERAS MULTIPLEXER VCR MONITOR
CCTV SYSTEMS • Following the September 11 attacks, the use of video surveillance has become a common occurrence in the country to deter future terrorist attacks.
CCTV SYSTEMS • In September 1968, Olean, New York was the first city in the United States to install video cameras along its main business street in an effort to fight crime. • CCTV later became very common in banks and stores to discourage theft, by recording evidence of criminal activity. Their use further popularized the concept.
CCTV SYSTEMS • Experiments in the UK during the 1970s and 1980s led to several larger trial programs later that decade. • These were deemed successful in the government report "CCTV: Looking Out For You", issued by the Home Office in 1994, and paved the way for a massive increase in the number of CCTV systems installed. • Today, systems cover most town and city centers, and many stations, car-parks and estates.
CCTV SYSTEMS • A more recent analysis by Northeastern University and the University of Cambridge, "Public Area CCTV and Crime Prevention: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis," examined 44 different studies that collectively surveyed areas from the United Kingdom to U.S. cities such as Cincinnati and New York. The analysis found that:
CCTV SYSTEMS • Surveillance systems were most effective in parking lots, where their use resulted in a 51% decrease in crime; • Public transportation areas saw a 23% decrease in crimes; • Systems in public settings were the least effective, with just a 7% decrease in crimes overall. When sorted by country, however, systems in the United Kingdom accounted for the majority of the decrease; the drop in other areas was insignificant.
CCTV SYSTEMS • Systems in public settings were the least effective STEALING JEWELERY, STILL AT LARGE ROAD RAGE STEALING LICENSE PLATES THIS GUY LOVES CATS
CCTV SYSTEMS • In October 2009, an "Internet Eyes" website was announced which would pay members of the public to view CCTV camera images from their homes and report any crimes they witnessed. The site aimed to add "more eyes" to cameras which might be insufficiently monitored, but civil liberties campaigners criticized the idea as "a distasteful and a worrying development.”
CCTV SYSTEMS • An article published in CCTV Image magazine estimates that the number of cameras in the UK is 1.85 million. • This works out as an average of one camera for every 32 people in the UK, although the density of cameras varies greatly from place to place. • The use of CCTV in the United States is less common, though increasing, and generally meets stronger opposition. In 1998, 3,000 CCTV systems were in use in New York City. There are more than 10,000 CCTV systems in Chicago.
CCTV SYSTEMS • Industrial processes that take place under conditions dangerous for humans are today often supervised by CCTV. These are mainly processes in the chemical industry, the interior of reactors or facilities for manufacture of nuclear fuel. • Special cameras for some of these purposes include line-scan cameras and thermo-graphic cameras which allow operators to measure the temperature of the processes. The usage of CCTV in such processes is sometimes required by law.
CCTV SYSTEMS • Many cities and motorway networks have extensive traffic-monitoring systems, using closed-circuit television to detect congestion and notice accidents. Many of these cameras however, are owned by private companies and transmit data to drivers' GPS systems.
CCTV SYSTEMS • http://www.ct.gov/dot/cwp/view.asp?a=2354&Q=401220 • You can view CT traffic at the website above from the dept. of transportation (DOT). CCTV#83 Hartford WB Exit 50 - Market St. Image provided by ConnDOT
CCTV SYSTEMS • Then there were traffic light cams………………… • "Revenue seems to be driving the red light camera rage," said Eric Skrum, Communications Director for the National Motorists Association.
CCTV SYSTEMS • "If cities were truly concerned about intersection safety, their engineers would be applying sound engineering practices that improve compliance with traffic laws and traffic signals while reducing accidents rather than installing ticket cameras. ROBO CAM
CCTV SYSTEMS • Skrum continued, "I find it very revealing that Lockheed Martin, one of the biggest manufacturers of red light cameras in the U.S., has included clauses in their contracts that prohibit city engineers from applying engineering practices that improve compliance and reduce accidents, apparently to maintain the flow of ticket camera revenue. Lockheed Martin specifically prohibits cities, such as San Diego, California, from changing the timing of yellow lights in intersections that host their cameras, even though increasing the yellow light time has proven to dramatically decrease red light violations.
CCTV SYSTEMS • "And, ticket cameras have definitely shown a profit. California recently raised their red light violation fines to $271 per ticket (Lockheed Martin receives $70 of that). Washington DC has started using photo enforcement and has stated it expects to receive $160 million in traffic fines by 2004. • It is now 2012/2013 what do you think the revenue stream is worth to towns, cities and the state today?
CCTV SYSTEMS • Opponents of CCTV point out the loss of privacy of the people under surveillance, and the negative impact of surveillance on civil liberties. • Furthermore, they argue that CCTV displaces crime, rather than reducing it. Critics often dub CCTV as "Big Brother surveillance", a reference to George Orwell's novel Nineteen Eighty-Four, which featured a two-way tele-screen in every home through which The Party would monitor the populace.
CCTV SYSTEMS • CCTV technology has come very far in technological advances compared to the early days. Nothing can hide from Smart PTZ! Mini camera/DVR system Laser guided
CCTV SYSTEMS • Cameras are every where these days watching everything.
CCTV SYSTEMS • As the technology has become easier to acquire, personal use of CCTV technology has become more widespread. • More and more homeowners are implementing CCTV systems to protect property and valuable items. Small business owners are also taking advantage of the accessible technology to monitor business practices and safeguard expensive equipment.
CCTV SYSTEMS • Almost everyone has a mini CCTV system in their pocket now.