by grace wairimu n.
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  2. Drug: This refers to any chemical agent that once taken in the body is capable of causing psychological and physiological changes. According to the WHO lexicon of alcohol and drug terms it is any substance with the potential to prevent and cure illnesses or enhance physical and mental welfare. KEY WORDS AND DEFINATION OF TERMS

  3. This is a substance that, when ingested, affects mental processes, e.g. cognition(thought) or affect(emotions). This term and its equivalent, psychotropic drug, are the most neutral and descriptive terms for the whole class of substances, licit and illicit. "Psychoactive" does not necessarily imply dependence-producing, and in common parlance, the term is often left unstated, as in "drug use" or "substance abuse”. Psychoactive drug or substance:

  4. Substance: A drug of abuse, a medication or a toxin. Substance use: This is the ingestion of any chemical that affects the body. This includes legal, illegal and medicinal substances. Abused substances: These are those chemicals that alter the individual’s perception by affecting the central nervous system (CNS).

  5. It is a maladaptive pattern of use indicated by continued use despite knowledge of having a persistent or recurrent social, occupational, psychological or physical problem that is caused or exacerbated by the use [or by] recurrent use in situations in which it is physically hazardous In other contexts, abuse has referred to non-medical or unsanctioned patterns of use, irrespective of consequences. Psychoactive substance abuse

  6. Rehabilitation: This is the process by which an individual with a substance use disorder achieves an optimal state of health, psychological functioning, and social well-being. This follows the initial phase of treatment which may involve detoxification and medical and psychiatric treatment. It could be done in residential setting or an outpatient facility. There is an expectation of social reintegration into the wider community.

  7. Relapse: A return to drinking or other drug use after a period, of abstinence, often accompanied by reinstatement of dependence symptoms

  8. Alcohol: Keroro, kumikumi, ashuashu, brown bottle, chang’a, gauge, tindi, kanywaji, steam Amphetamine type of stimulants: Amp, dexies, pep pills, wake up pills, speed, black beauties, crack meth, fee, ice, matunguru, maharagwe Cannabis Sativa/marijuana: Boza, Wadada, shada, Ndom, weed, ngawi, pot, grass, bhang, dagga DRUG STREET NAMES

  9. Catha edulis (Khat):Mirra, Veve, Njito, Ngomba, Mbachu, Njiri, mairungi, mogoka, giza, asili, kangeta Cocaine:bazooka, blance, snow, nose candy blow, big C. snow birds, lady, star dust Crack cocaine: Whites, French fries, teeth, crake, coke, flake Heroin:Kichuri, kiketi, horse, brown sugar, unga, poni, poppy, mizigo, stuff, daba, usinionje

  10. Inhalants: Mugui, noso, bien, mangata Tobacco: Fag, Ngale, Mozo, Fwaka, FegiNgarasi, Cigar, Mbaki, Kiraiku, msokoto Sedatives: Bughizi,Narcozep, Rohypnol, Primun, Rohipnol, RoipnolRoofies, Valium, piritonserepax(Date rape drug) sleeping pills. HallucinogenesLSD, acid, mushrooms, PCP, special k.

  11. Social/peer pressure • Stress • Fun • Curiosity • Stimulation • Easy availability of the drug • Media through advertisements • A way of relaxation and socialization • Experimentation • Culture • Poor self esteem • Dysfunctional families • Pressure to perform academically WHAT CAUSES YOUNG PEOPLE TO INDULGE IN DRUGS AND OR ALCOHOL

  12. People will usually go to great lengths to conceal their drug and or alcohol use. One has to be very close to them to note some of the signs and symptoms. COMMON SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS TO NOTE

  13. Eating habits change- depending on the drug of choice, the person may eat too much or loose appetite for food. • Disturbed sleep partners- including over sleeping, marked drowsiness, moodiness a fatigued appearance and restlessness. • Frequent complains of headaches- the am sick too often i.ehapahapa syndrome • Chronic cough that does not respond to treatment • Memory lapses- short attention span, difficulty in concentration • Poor physical coordination- including slurred and or incoherent speech • Burt or stained thumbs or finger nails PHYSICAL SIGNS

  14. Burn holes on clothing or bed sheets • Use of medicines to relieve constipation • Unexplained skin rash • Excessive sweating • Sexual problems- which ma include lack of sexual appeal or promiscuity • Unhealthy appearances • Needle marks-marks due to using needles.

  15. Increased and inappropriate anger, hostility, excessive irritability, panic anxiety and secretiveness. • Unnecessary privacy • Avoiding contact with parents and people in authority • Quarrelsome, outbursts of violence or unexplained anti social behaviour, poathological lies, problems with police • Disappearance of money and house hold items and stealing from others BEHAVIOUR

  16. Demand for money form parents which is never enough • Leaving early morning in a hurried manner-matter of urgency • Irregular class attendance • Hounding • Sudden laughter outbursts for reasons not really worth it. • Disorientation in time and space

  17. As a person moves into a regular pattern of drug abuse the drug takes centre stage of the persons life. Drugs become the emotional and social focus at the expense of other interests. This gradually leads to social, emotional and physical problems. Loss of control and the breakdown of close relationships may lead to feelings of self doubt, poor self esteem, guilt anxiety and sadness, which all lead to further drug abuse as an escape. Tolerance and dependence accompany this process. Effects of drug abuse

  18. The repeated use of a drug leads to changes in the brain and nervous system to that the user needs more of the drug in order to get expected effects tolerance

  19. Drug dependence is an emotional and sometimes physical need experienced by the drug abuser. The drug or alcohol dependent person feels compulsion to take the drug on a regular basis, to feel its effects and avoid the discomfort of its absence. Some drugs cause physical dependence (treated through detoxification) while others cause psychological dependence (this is where the work is for a counselor) dependence

  20. Addiction is the physical and psychological habit of feeling of need, which comes from repeated use of a drug. Drug abusers often continue to feel the need and desire for drugs after they have gone through detoxification. addiction

  21. For a drug dependent person, it is necessary to take the drug in order to maintain normal body functions. When the drug is not taken the person suffers from physical and mental discomfort. The fear of suffering fro withdrawal is like an emotional prison which make the addict feel trapped and controlled by the drug. If initially drugs were taken to experience particular sensations, in the later stages they are taken to avoid suffering the unpleasant effects of withdrawal. withdrawal


  23. Bad breath Cough and colds Stained teeth and black lips SHORT TERM EFFECTS OF TOBACCO

  24. Cancer of the lungs Brain damage The skin and digestive system are affected Halitosis (bad breath) Burn of fingers which can lead to gangrene dependency LONG TERM EFFECTS

  25. shisha

  26. narghile argileh hubble-bubble Goza Hookah Other names of shisha

  27. shisha tobacco" shortened to just "shisha" can, in the West, mean the molasses-based tobacco concoction smoked in a hookah. A water pipe, single or multi-stemmed instrument forvaporizingand smoking flavored tobacco called shisha in which the vapor or smoke is passed through a water basin ‒ often glass-based ‒ before inhalation Depending on the placement of the coal above the shisha, a hookah can be used to produce smoke by burning the shisha or used to create water vapor by melting it at a lower temperature.

  28. A 2005 WHO report states that smoking using a waterpipe poses a serious potential health hazard and is not a safe alternative to cigarette smoking. The average hookah session typically lasts more than 40 minutes, and consists of 50 to 200 inhalations that each range from 0.15 to 0.50 liters of smoke. In an hour-long smoking session of hookah, users consume about 100 to 200 times the volume of smoke of a cigarette.

  29. The chemical compositions of cigarette smoke and hookah smoke are different, however, as the workings of the charcoal in the modern hookah causes the tobacco mixture to be heated to a lower temperature, as opposed to the higher temperature in a cigarette where the tobacco is directly burnt. Consequently, the potential health effects of hookah smoke are expected to be very different

  30. The charcoal used to heat the tobacco can raise health risks by producing high levels of carbon monoxide, metals, and cancer-causing chemicals. • Even after it has passed through water, the smoke from a hookah has high levels of these toxic agents. • Hookah tobacco and smoke contain several toxic agents known to cause lung, bladder, and oral cancers. • Tobacco juices from hookahs irritate the mouth and increase the risk of developing oral cancers. Hookah Smoke and Cancer

  31. Hookah tobacco and smoke contain many toxic agents that can cause clogged arteries and heart disease. • Infections may be passed to other smokers by sharing a hookah. • Babies born to women who smoked water pipes every day while pregnant weigh less at birth (at least 3½ ounces less) than babies born to nonsmokers. • Babies born to hookah smokers are also at increased risk for respiratory diseases. Other Health Effects of Hookah Smoke

  32. Hookah smokers may be at risk for some of the same diseases as cigarette smokers. These include: • Oral cancer • Lung cancer • Stomach cancer • Cancer of the esophagus • Reduced lung function • Decreased fertility

  33. KUBER

  34. A highly intoxicating drug which is openly sold in the name of mouth freshener and packed in plastic packets similar to tea leave sachets. It is chewable tobacco rich in nicotine. It can also be made as tea and drunk but is usually sucked, placed under the tongue. N.B it contains THC (tetrahydrocannibinol) an ingredient found in the cannabis sativa plant (bhang)

  35. It s a CNS (Central Nervous System) Stimulant It increases behavioral activity, Thought processes and alertness Elevate the mood of the user.

  36. Dizziness, Headaches Sleeping Weak teeth Bleeding gums Tooth discoloration, holes on the gum line and cervical cancer (still being researched) and sometimes women can become infertile. It impairs memory and causes depression EFFECTS OF KUBER

  37. America's National Cancer Institute classifies it as a brand of smokeless tobacco. According to the institute, smokeless tobacco contains 28 cancer causing agents and its users take in three to four times more nicotine (the addictive substance in tobacco) than cigarette smokers, making it that many times more addictive. kuber is associated with 41 per cent of mouth and throat cancer in men and 11 per cent of similar problems in women world-wide because of its high content in nicotine.

  38. Cannabis sativa (bhang, marijuana)

  39. Smoking (plain or mixed with tobacco) cocktail Baked (cake, cookies)-weed cake Eaten in food, processed to oil Herbal tea method of use

  40. Week cooks and weed cake in kenya

  41. Giggling a lot the first time Increase in heart rate (could cause heat attacks) Increase in blood pressure Restlessness Dry mouth and throat Thirst- drinks a lot of fluids especially sweet drinks Walking gait changes Effects of use

  42. Bloodshot eyes Talks a lot or becomes very quiet Tense muscles slurred speech Sleeps a lot Short term memory loss Distorted sense of time, distance Personal hygiene ( most don’t take baths and change cloths

  43. Cancer of the lungs – cannabis has more tar than cigarettes the smoke is also held longer in the lungs Produces extreme euphoria Extreme anxiety Depression Infertility Psychosis (if present makes it worse) Hallucinations Retardation – mentally, emotionally, sexually and physically

  44. alcohol

  45. IMMEDIATE EFFECTS Euphoria Self confidence increased sociability Decreased anxiety Shortened attention span Flushed appearance Impaired judgment Impaired muscle coordination Effects of alcohol

  46. Sedation Impaired memory Delayed reactions Unbalanced walk (ataxia) Blurred vision Profound confusion Dizziness Vomiting Unconsciousness Decreased heart rate Respiratory depression