100 Years Ago Life in 1910 compared to Life in 2010
Background Info 1910 • U.S. was first considered a world power • Population of U.S. – 92,228,496 • 46 states in the union • Average Salary - $750 / year • Life Expectancy – Males: 48.4 years Females: 51.8 years
Background Info 2010 • U.S. a world superpower • Population – 281,421,906 • 50 states in the union • Average Salary – $36.764 • Life Expectancy – Males: 75 years Females: 80 years
Family Life 1910 • Majority of families were Husband + Wife + Several Children • Divorce rate was 1 out of 1000 marriages • Most families lived in rural areas • Poor lived in inner city tenements (slums) • Many children worked from the age of 10 to help support the family • Many children did not survive to adulthood • “Children should be seen, not heard.”
Family Life 2010 • Only half are traditional families • 43% of marriages end in divorce • Divorce = step families, single parent families • Most families live in metropolitan areas • Fewer children (2 or 3) • Children have more rights • No child labor in U.S. • Families are centered around the needs of the children
Family Life 2010 Single Parent Families Children have more rights and leisure time. Minority Families
Predict What will Family Life be like in 2110?
Housing/Habitat 1910 • U.S. mainly a rural country • Inner cities filled with poor and immigrants, plus some very wealthy areas • Tenements were crowded, dirty, and full of diseases • Farms did not have access to electricity, roads, shops, higher education • Most homes were simple-large kitchens, porches, made of wood
Housing/Habitat 1910 Rural City-Wealthy and Poor Slum Typical American small town home Factory Town
Housing/Habitat 2010 • U.S. mainly an urban country • Inner cities a combination of very wealthy and very poor • Inner city plagued with crime, gangs • Most rural areas have access to everything • New habitat is popular with middle class – Suburbs • Suburban homes for families; yards; shopping
Predict What will Housing and Habitats be like in 2110?
Government 1910 • President – William Howard Taft (R) • Democracy • Important Issues: • Immigration • Progressivism • Labor (unions, child labor)
Government 2010 • President – Barack Obama (D) • Democracy • Important Issues • Economy (esp. unemployment) • War in Middle East • Health Care • Environment • Taxes
Predict What will Government be like in 2110?
Labor/Employment 1910 • 60.7% of workers worked 54-60 hours a week, 6 days a week • 33.2% of American workers worked in Agriculture & related industries • 27.9% of American workers worked in Manufacturing & Mechanical industries • Child labor was common and cheap • Children started working at 7 or 8 years old • Rise of Labor Unions to stop abuses • No unemployment benefits, insurance, social security
Labor/Employment 1910 Factory Scene Lumberjacks Coal Miners Child Labor
Labor/Employment 2010 • Law – 40 hour work week • Growing white-collar jobs (offices) • Child labor restricted • Labor Unions are becoming smaller and weaker • Employers offer benefits such as insurance, retirement, paid vacation • Minimum wage set by the states • Government oversees safety in the workplace • Losing jobs to China and other countries
Labor/Employment 2010 Unemployment Line Service Industries Waiters White Collar Workers Chinese Factory Workers Google Employees
Predict What will Labor and Employment be like in 2110?
Education 1910 • Only one-third of children were enrolled in elementary school (children worked) • Only 10% of teens graduated from high school • Only 2.7% of young adults graduated from college (mainly white upper class males) • Catholic Schools becoming popular • Schools are segregated legally (white schools and “colored” schools) • Quality of education varies from place to place
Education 1910 Classroom in 1910 1910 College Students Typical 1910 School Textbook
Education 2010 • Children must attend school until age 17 (in IL) • Public Education is accessible to all areas • High School Graduation Rate: 84.1% • College Graduation Rate: 26.7% • Quality of education varies from place to place • To make public education more reliable and uniform, standardized testing is used to measure student progress • Districts and teachers held more accountable for student learning
Predict What will Education be like in 2110?
Civil Rights 1910 • African Americans treated as second-class citizens (segregated low quality education, prevented from voting, couldn’t join unions) • African American literacy rate – 55.5% • Lynching, Ku Klux Klan active • Immigrants were discriminated against • Women not yet allowed to vote • Native Americans forced into reservations
Civil Rights 1910 Women demonstrate for the right to vote African Americans New Immigrants Native American Reservation
Civil Rights 2010 • Some Civil Rights movements today: • Gay Rights • Immigrants (esp. illegal immigrants) • Pro-Life/Pro-Choice Debate • Some people fight for animal rights
Civil Rights 2010 Gay Rights Protesting Animal Cruelty Immigration Reform Abortion
Predict Who will be fighting for Civil Rights in 2110?
Commerce/Money 1910 • Mass production/assembly line • Workers start to make money = buying more consumer goods • Most people did not own their own home • Start of the working middle class • Upper class invest in stock market • Banks hold money; open limited hours
Commerce/Money 1910 Wall Street Assembly Line San Francisco Bank
Commerce/Money 2010 • Recession (unemployment, foreclosures, no credit, businesses closing) • Credit cards are popular • Debit cards make cash unnecessary • ATM’s to access money 24 hours a day • Money in banks is insured by federal government • Upper and middle class invest in stock market
Predict What will Commerce and Money be like in 2110?
Transportation 1910 • Horses, trains, boats, and walking were still main methods of transportation • Automobiles were just coming out; most people did not own one (too expensive) • In a few years, Model T will become affordable • Airplane was just invented, not practical yet • In the cities, trolleys and streetcars run by electricity got people around town • People lived near work
Transportation 1910 Titanic Riverboat Trolley
Transportation 2010 • Global transportation faster—airplanes • Trains and boats still used for cargo and people • Commuter trains between city and suburbs • Buses and electric trains in the cities (subways) • Most people own a car • Cars causing environmental problems (pollution, oil spills, concrete invading natural areas) • Space exploration
Predict What will Transportation be like in 2110?
Communication 1910 • People had more face-to-face conversations (visits) • Telephone invented, but not widespread • Letter writing for long distance communication • Government Postal Service delivered mail • Overseas and ship-to-shore telegraphs (Morse code) • Radio just invented, not in use yet
Communication 1910 Telephone Operators at a switchboard Old Telephone Letter Writing Early Radio Station Telegraph Machine
Communication 2010 • Face-to-face conversations unnecessary • Instant communication/always in touch • Cell phones with texting and Internet • Computers with Internet-communicate with the world • Instant messaging, Facebook, Skype, blogs, wikis, chat rooms… • Television, radio • Satellites for TV, radio, and phones
Predict What will Communication be like in 2110?
Fashion 1910 • Formal and conservative compared to today • Becoming less elaborate than in the past • Women’s hemlines higher-ankles showed • Men-jacket, tie, starched shirt collars • Both men and women wore hats • Boys wore short pants until teenagers • Girls wore shorter dresses until teens • Women’s hair arranged swept up and back • Men used oil in hair and grew mustaches
Fashion 1910 Moustache Bathing Beauties Hard to Care For Hair Worn Up Hats, Furs, Feathers, Umbrellas
Fashion 2010 • Clothes becoming more informal overall • Clothes make a statement about your personality • Easy to care for fabrics • Variety of fashion styles and hair styles are acceptable • More skin showing on females is acceptable • Tattoos, hair coloring, make up, cosmetic surgery are all becoming the norm • Celebrities influence fashion