Anne Frank The Diary of a Young Girl One book that changed the world.
The Holocaust The mass murder of Jews, Poles, Roma, and others by the Nazi regime from 1941 to 1945.
Margot is born in 1926 The Franks Anne Frank is born June 12, 1929 In 1925, Otto Frank and Edith Hollander marry
Germany, 1929 War debts and the Great Depression leave Germany in shambles. People are rioting against the government. More than 6 million people are jobless.
Germany, 1932 The National Socialist German Worker Party (Nazi) wins the most offices in the election. They promise Germans a better life.
Germany, 1932 Hitler wanted power to achieve his goal of restoring Germany to glory. His new Reich, or state, would be meant for only pure Germans, or Aryans.
Germany, 1934 Hitler lost the presidential election, but was later appointed Chancellor. When the president died, Hitler seized all power.
Jews Roma (aka Gypsies) Germany under Nazi control Jehova’s Witnesses The sign reads “Jews not welcome here.” homosexuals The sick & disabled political opponents The Nazi government begins to push Jews, Gypsies, and other “undesirables” out of the society. Jews
Scapegoat: a person or group that bears the blame for others “I can remember that as early as 1932, groups of Storm Troopers came marching by singing: ‘When Jewish blood splatters from the knife.'" Otto Frank
Jews were no longer allowed to: Own businesses or property Go to public school Play in public playgrounds Be out at night Be out without wearing a yellow star
"The world around me collapsed. I had to face the consequences, and though this did hurt me deeply I realized that Germany was not the world and I left forever." Otto Frank Holland, 1933 The Franks arrived in 1933, having left Germany in fear of Anti-Jewish laws. Anne was 4 years old.
Holland, 1933 Over 140,000 Jews took refuge in Amsterdam, hoping to avoid Nazi rule. Holland is also known as The Netherlands. People there speak Dutch.
Translation: One People, one Reich, one Leader! Hitler demanded more land for his new Reich. He had promised his Nazi followers a new empire. Germany took control of Austria. World War II Begins European leaders drew the line at Poland. They told Hitler not to invade any more countries. In September1939, Hitler order the invasion of Poland. WWII had begun. Hitler ignored them. Germany invaded Czechoslovakia.
Blitzkrieg- lightning war “After May 1940, the good times were few and far between: first there was the war, then the capitulation and then the arrival of the Germans, which is when the trouble started for the Jews.” Anne Frank May 9, 1940 Germany invaded Holland. Holland surrendered 5 days later. Holland was neutral, but that didn’t matter. Europe, 1940 April to June 1940 Norway, Denmark, Belgium, Northern France conquered
Holland, 1940 Restrictions are placed on Jews, just like they were in Germany.
Holland, 1940 Johannes Kleimanand Victor Kugler.
Final solution= extermination Death marches Concentration camps Mass executions Berlin, Germany, January 1942 Nazi officials meet to decide what to do about the continuing “Jewish problem.”
“Today I have nothing but dismal and depressing news to report. Our many Jewish friends and acquaintances are being taken away in droves… transporting them in cattle cars to Westerbork, the big camp in Drenthe to which they're sending all the Jews. Miep told us about someone who'd managed to escape from there. It must be terrible in Westerbork.” Anne Frank Deported = Loaded onto a cattle car and sent to a concentration camp Holland, 1942 Then, Jews begin to be “deported.”
July 5, 1942 Margot receives notice she must be ”deported” to a work camp.
The Secret Annex Otto Frank decides his family must hide.
The Secret Annex, 1942 The Van Pelsand Fritz Pfefferjoin them.
BepVoskuijl Helpers Johannes Kleiman Victor Kugler Trustworthy friends and employees keep their secret and help them survive. MiepGies
Van Pels = Van Daan Mr. Pfeffer = Mr. Dussel “The nicest part is being able to write down all my thoughts and feelings, otherwise I'd absolutely suffocate.” The Secret Annex, 1942-44 Life continues in hiding. Anne writes it all down. She plans on being a writer or journalist.
“It was around ten-thirty. I was upstairs with the Van Pelses in Peter’s room and I was helping him with his schoolwork. I was showing him the mistake in the dictation when suddenly someone came running up the stairs. The stairs were squeaking, I stood up, because it was still early in the morning and everyone was supposed to be quiet - then the door opened and a man was standing right in front of us with a gun in his hand and it was pointed at us.” Otto Frank Capture: Aug 4, 1944 The families were sent to Westerbork, then to several different camps.
“Again and again small groups of survivors returned from different concentration camps and I tried to hear something from them about Margot and Anne. I found two sisters who had been with Margot and Anne in Bergen-Belsen. They told me about the final sufferings and the death of my children.” Otto Frank After the war, 1945 Only Otto Frank survives.
Anne’s diary MiepGiessaved Anne’s diary
1947 Otto Frank fulfills his daughter’s wish and publishes her diary.