free word combinations n.
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  2. Definition of a word-group and its basic features • Structure of word-groups • Meaning of word-groups • Motivation in word-groups

  3. Word-Group • the largest two-facet language unit • consists of more than one word • studied in the syntagmatic level of analysis

  4. Word-Group • the degree of structural and semantic cohesion may vary e.g. at least, by means of, take place – semantically and structurally inseparable e.g. a week ago, kind to people – have greater semantic and structural independence

  5. Free-Word Combination • word-groups that have a greater semantic and structural independence • freely composed by the speaker in his speech according to his purpose

  6. Features of Word-groups • Lexical Valency • Grammatical Valency

  7. Lexical Valency (Collocability) • The ability of a word to appear in various combinations with other words, or lexical contexts e.g. question – vital/pressing/urgent/etc., question at issue, to raise a question, a question on the agenda

  8. Lexical Valency (Collocability) • words habitually collocated in speech make a cliché e.g. to put forward a question

  9. Lexical Valency (Collocability) • lexical valency of correlated words in different languages is different e.g. flower цветок garden flowers садовые цветы hot-house flowers оранжерейные цветы pot flowers комнатные цветы

  10. Lexical Valency (Collocability) • different meanings of one and the same word may be revealed through different type of lexical valency e.g. heavy table, book heavy snow, rain heavy drinker, eater heavy sorrow, sleep heavy industry

  11. Grammatical Valency • The ability of a word to appear in specific grammatical structures, or grammatical contexts

  12. Grammatical Valency • the minimal grammatical context in which the words are used when brought together to form a word-group is called the pattern of the word-group

  13. Grammatical Valency • restricted by the part of speech e.g. an adjective + noun, infinitive, prepositional group a kind man, kind to people, heavy to lift • limited by the inner structure of the language e.g. to propose a plan – to suggest a plan to propose to do smth -

  14. Grammatical Valency • grammatical valency of correlated words in different languages is different e.g. enter the room - войти в комнату

  15. Classifications of word-groups • according to the distribution • according to the head-word • according to the syntactic pattern

  16. endocentric – central member functionally equivalent to the whole word-group e.g. red flower ( I saw a red flower – I saw a flower) exocentric – the distribution of the whole word-group is different from either of its components e.g. side by side, grow smaller, John runs Word-groups according to distribution

  17. Word-groups according to the head word • nominal groups e.g. red flower • adjectival groups e.g. kind to people • verbal groups e.g. to speak well

  18. predicative– have a syntactic structure similar to that of a sentence e.g.John went, he works non-predicative – do not have a structure similar to a sentence e.g. red flower, running John Word-groups according to the syntactic pattern

  19. coordinative – elements of a word-group are coordinated with each other e.g. day and night, do or die subordinative – one member of a word-group is subordinated to the central element e.g. red flower, a man of wisdom Non-predicative and endocentric word-groups

  20. Meaning of Word-Groups • lexical meaning • structural meaning

  21. Lexical meaning • the combined lexical meaning of the component words • BUT the meaning of the word-group predominates over the lexical meanings of its components e.g. atomic weight, atomic warfare

  22. Lexical meaning • polysemantic words are used only in one of their meanings e.g. man and wife, blind man • stylistic reference of a word-group may be different from that of its components e.g. old, boy, bags, fun – old boy (дружище), bags of fun

  23. Structural meaning • meaning conveyed by the arrangement of components of a word-group e.g. school grammar – grammar school

  24. Structural meaning • structural and lexical meanings are interdependent and inseparable e.g. school children – to school children all the sun long – all the night long, all the week long

  25. lexically motivated - the combined lexical meaning of a group is deducible from the meanings of its components lexically non-motivated – the meaning of the whole is not seen through the meanings of the elements Motivation in Word-groups

  26. lexically motivated e.g. red flower lexically non-motivated e.g. red tape – ‘official bureaucratic methods’ Motivation in Word-groups

  27. Motivation in Word-groups • e.g. apple sauce – ‘a sauce made of apples’ apple sauce – ‘nonsense’

  28. Motivation in Word-groups • Non-motivated word-groups are called phraseological units or idioms