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Qualitative Research- Part 2 Tools and Techniques

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Qualitative Research- Part 2 Tools and Techniques

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  1. DIE 4564 Research Methods Qualitative Research- Part 2 Tools and Techniques

  2. Chapter Outline • Topics Appropriate for Survey Research • Guidelines for Asking Questions • Questionnaire Construction • Self-Administered Questionnaires • Interview Surveys • Telephone Surveys • Online Surveys • Comparison of the Different Survey Methods • Strengths and Weaknesses of Survey Research • Secondary Analysis • Ethics and Survey Research

  3. Topics Appropriate for Survey Research • Descriptive, exploratory, and explanatory • Units of analysis = respondents • Respondents – a person who provides data for analysis by responding to a survey questionnaire. • Large samples, original data, measuring attitudes and orientations

  4. Guidelines for Asking Questions • Questionnaire - a document containing questions and other types of items designed to solicit information appropriate for analysis. • Open-Ended Questions – questions for which the respondent is asked to provide his/her own answers. • Closed-Ended Questions – survey questions in which the respondent is asked to select an answer from a list provided by the researcher.

  5. Guidelines for Asking Questions • Select appropriate question forms. • Make items clear. • Avoid double-barreled questions. • Respondents must be competent to answer. • Respondents must be willing to answer. • Questions should be relevant. • Short items are best • Avoid negative items. • Avoid biased items and terms.

  6. Guidelines for Asking Questions • Bias – that quality of measurement device that tends to result in a misrepresentation of what is being measured in a particular direction.

  7. Guidelines for Asking Questions • Review Question • Whenever we ask people for information, they answer through a filter of what will make them look good. This filter is called _________.

  8. Guidelines for Asking Questions • Review Question • Whenever we ask people for information, they answer through a filter of what will make them look good. This filter is called social desirability.

  9. Questionnaire Construction • General Questionnaire Format • Uncluttered • One question per line • Consistent format

  10. Questionnaire Construction • Formats for Respondents

  11. Questionnaire Construction • Contingency Question – a survey question intended for only some respondents, determined by their responses to some other question.

  12. Questionnaire Construction • Contingency Question – a survey question intended for only some respondents, determined by their responses to some other question.

  13. Questionnaire Construction • Matrix Questions

  14. Questionnaire Construction • Ordering Items in a Questionnaire • Appearance • Open-Ended or Closed-Ended First?

  15. Questionnaire Construction • Questionnaire Instructions • Introductory comments and clear instructions • Pre-testing the Questionnaire

  16. Questionnaire Construction • A Composite Illustration

  17. Questionnaire Construction • Review Question • Which of the below is not a characteristic of matrix questions? A. They use space efficiently when asking multiple questions. B. They must all have the same response categories. C. They are less valid measures of concepts. D. They will speed the response time for respondents.

  18. Questionnaire Construction • Review Question • Which of the below is not a characteristic of matrix questions? • The answer is C. Matrix questions use space efficiently when asking multiple questions, have the same response categories, and will speed the response time for respondents. They are not less valid measures of concepts.

  19. Self-Administered Questionnaires Questionnaires in which respondents are asked to complete the questionnaire by themselves • Mail Distribution and Return • Why do people not return questionnaires? • Monitoring Returns • Follow-Up Mailings

  20. Self-Administered Questionnaires • Response Rate – the number of people participating in a survey divided by the number selected in the sample. • Ideal = higher than 70% • Other kinds of rates: • Cooperation rates • Refusal rates • Contact rates

  21. Self-Administered Questionnaires • Compensation for Respondents • Effect on response rates • A Case Study

  22. Self-Administered Questionnaires • Review Question • The proportion of all potentially eligible cases in which the respondent refuses to be interviewed or breaks off an interview is called the ________ rate.

  23. Self-Administered Questionnaires • Review Question • The proportion of all potentially eligible cases in which the respondent refuses to be interviewed or breaks off an interview is called the refusal rate.

  24. Interview Surveys • Interview – a data-collection encounter in which one person (interviewer) asks questions of another (respondent). • The Role of the Survey Interviewer

  25. Interview Surveys • Guidelines for Survey Interviewing • Appearance and demeanor • Familiarity with the questionnaire • Following question wording exactly • Recording responses exactly • Probing for responses • Probe – a technique employed in interviewing to solicit a more complete answer to a question.

  26. Interview Surveys • Coordinate and Control • Training • General guidelines • How to handle difficult situations • Practice interviews

  27. Interview Surveys • Review Question • Which of the below is not one of the advantages of using a survey interviewer? A. Increased response rates B. Decreased number of “don’t knows” and “no answers” C. Better understanding of questions D. Increased refusal rate

  28. Interview Surveys • Review Question • Which of the below is not one of the advantages of using a survey interviewer? • The correct answer is D. The use of survey interviewers increases response rates, decreases “don’t knows” and “no answers,” and assures the respondents better understand the questions. Using a survey interviewer does not increase the refusal rate.

  29. Telephone Surveys • Advantages • 95.5% of households have a telephone • Time and money • Disadvantages • Unlisted phone numbers • Cell phones

  30. Telephone Surveys • Random-Digit Dialing (RDD) – a sampling technique in which random numbers are selected from within the range of numbers assigned to active telephones.

  31. Telephone Surveys • Computer-Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI) – a data-collection technique in which a telephone-survey questionnaire is stored in a computer, permitting the interviewer to read the questions from the monitor and enter the answers on the computer keyboard

  32. Telephone Surveys • Response Rates in Interview Surveys

  33. Telephone Surveys • Review Question • This type of telephone survey is more cost-effective because it cuts out the labor costs of hiring interviewers and it automatically prepares data for analysis: _______.

  34. Telephone Surveys • Review Question • This type of telephone survey is more cost-effective because it cuts out the labor costs of hiring interviewers and it automatically prepares data for analysis: CATI.

  35. Online Surveys • DO use consistent wording. • DO use simple language. • DON’T force excessive scrolling. • DO offer to share select result with respondents. • DO plan time and day of initial mailing. • DO be aware of technical limitations. • DO test incentives, rewards, and prizes. • DO limit studies to less than 15 minutes.

  36. Online Surveys • Review Question • True or False: The relative youth of online surveys makes them fertile ground for innovation and experimentation.

  37. Online Surveys • Review Question • True: The relative youth of online surveys makes them fertile ground for innovation and experimentation.

  38. Comparison of the Different Survey Methods • Self-Administered Questionnaires • Cheaper and faster than face-to-face interviews • National is the same cost as local mailings • Requires small staff • More willingness to answer controversial items • Interview Surveys • Fewer incomplete questionnaires • More effective for complicated questionnaires • Face-to-face is more intimate • Telephone Surveys • Cheaper and more time efficient • Online Surveys • Available software and websites

  39. Examples of Methods for Collecting Data

  40. Comparison of the Different Survey Methods One advantage of _______ surveys is that they work better for questionnaires with complicated contingency questions. A. Self-administered B. Interview C. Telephone D. Online

  41. Comparison of the Different Survey Methods • The correct answer is B. Interview surveys are better for complicated questionnaires.

  42. Recruiting Methods Once a data collection method has been selected, the next step is to decide on an effective method for recruiting members of the sample population to be participants in the study. The best method for initiating contact with potential participants is often related to the intended data collection method.

  43. Recruiting Methods Participation rates will likely be higher if: • Recruits understand the importance and value of the research project • Researchers provide multiple invitations and opportunities to participate, and make participation as easy as possible • Incentives (such as small gifts) are offered

  44. Data Recording Methods A decision must also be made about how responses will be recorded and when they will be entered into a computer database. There are two basic options: Record the responses on paper and to enter them into a computer database later Have interviewers or participants enter responses directly into a database

  45. Methods for Collecting and Recording Survey Data

  46. Training Interviewers The interview process should be the same for all participants in a study, whether they are being interviewed in-person or by telephone interview. Uniformity is easiest to accomplish when all interviewers attend training sessions where they have an opportunity to practice their interview skills.

  47. Strengths and Weaknesses of Survey Research • Strengths • Useful in describing large populations • Surveys are flexible • Standardized questions

  48. Strengths and Weaknesses of Survey Research • Weaknesses • Round pegs in square holes • Seldom deal with context of social life • Inflexible • Artificial • Weak on validity