An Introduction toSheltered Instruction Presented by Andrea Barras & Jeannie Landry
Sheltered Instruction is simply a holistic approach for teaching ELLs that works with at-risk students as well.
Sheltered Instruction is not: • Pull-out ESL classes • ESL classes that focus exclusively on learning English (not on content) • Mainstream classes with no English Language Learners
Sheltered Instruction is a total English approach to instruction and classroom management that teachers can use to help ELLs students acquire English and content area knowledge and skills.It is also beneficial to at-risk students as well.
Sheltered Instruction draws from and compliments methods and strategies advocated for both second-language learners and at-risk students. Sheltered Instruction is beneficial because the more familiar the academic tasks and routines are, the easier it will be for these students to focus on the new content.
The 8 Components of Sheltered Instruction • Lesson Preparation • Building Background • Comprehensible Input • Strategies • Interaction • Practice and Application • Lesson Delivery • Review and Assessment
1. Lesson Preparation: • Clearly define content objectives • Clearly define language objectives • Use supplementary materials to clarify lessons • Adapt content to all levels of student proficiency • Integrate lesson concepts with language practice opportunities
2. Building Background: • Link concepts to students’ background • Link students’ past learning with new concepts • Emphasize key vocabulary
3. Comprehensible Input: • Speak slowly, enunciate clearly. • Don’t use idioms without explaining them. • Make content concepts clear using a variety of techniques.
4. Strategies: • Use of scaffolding techniques throughout lessons • Modeling • Hands-on manipulatives • Real-life activities • Commercially made pictures • Teacher-made pictures • Overhead projector • Demonstration • Multimedia
Time-lines Graphs Bulletin Boards Maps Key vocabulary Word bank Slower speech Wait time Consistent vocabulary Create interaction possibilities between students Linking concepts to students background Relating content material to previous lessons Vary your reading options ( whole class, pairs, small groups) Even more strategies…
5. Interaction: • Student discussion and interaction provides much needed “oral rehearsal” • Vary student grouping to support language and content objectives • Afford sufficient wait time • Ample opportunity for clarification of concepts
6. Practice/Application: • Lots of hands-on materials • Make abstract concepts concrete through discussion and student activities. • Integrate all language skills; listening, speaking, reading, writing, into every lesson
7. Lesson Delivery: • Clearly support content objectives • Clearly support language objectives • Students need to be engaged 90-100% of the lesson • Pace lessons to students’ ability levels…Quality not quantity
8. Review/Assess • Comprehensive review of key vocabulary and key content concepts • Provide students feedback on their output • Assess students’ comprehension and learning
Who benefits from this model? Students who… • have strong academic background in their first language • have intermediate fluency in second language • were born in USA but not given the opportunity of their first language learning and/or an ESL program • are regular students, who are not ESL, but need extra help with their learning process.
Research.. has shown that teachers must support these students by addressing the following needs: • Affective Support • Cognitive Support • Linguistic Support
Affective Support The greatest motivation for any students to learn a second language is the desire to live in fellowship with those individuals who speak that new language. • Anxiety-free learning situation • Valued native language and culture • Advocacy for rights • Opportunities for success
To Meet Affective Needs… • Find out what they already know & build on that. • Allow them to use their native language when needed & to teach others about their language & culture • Let them and their parents know they the right to an education and what the school system has to offer them
Cognitive Support • Comprehensible input • Learning and metacognitive strategies • Louisiana English Language Development Standards • Higher-level thinking skills
To Meet Cognitive Needs… • Speak slowly, enunciate clearly, avoid idioms • Make connections between concepts and vocabulary words • Teach study skills and thinking strategies to use in all content areas • Modify lessons and texts
Linguistic Support • Research-based instruction • Meaningful interaction with more proficient English speakers • Instruction designed for level of proficiency
To Meet Linguistic Needs… • Expand and elaborate on what students are saying to provide a correct model for them • Correct errors by paraphrasing or re-wording rather than overt error correction, which may lead to embarrassment • Become aware of the students’ Language Development Stages
The Silent Stage ELLs learn the English language in the following order: they read, write, acquire the ability to listen, and finally, they learn how to speak. Students go through the, so-called, “silent stage”. They do not speak at all and people around them do not realize they are able to understand 90% or more of a conversation while they are not able to either give an opinion, or answer a question because they cannot produce the language, yet.
The Chinese Bamboo Story Except for a light and small bud from the bulb, this incredible plant, after being sown, does not show anything until five years later. For five years, the growing is under the ground, invisible to the human eye. But…a firm and fibrous root structure is being scattered vertically and horizontally under the ground while is maturing. Then, at the end of the fifth year, the Chinese bamboo suddenly grows until it reaches a height of 75 feet.
Conclusion Sheltered Instruction has many features that can be used in any class setting, even students whose primary language is English can benefit from this approach. We should never forget that ELLs and at-risk students are also like the Chinese Bamboo. Just give them time and they will become strong and productive like the giant Chinese Bamboo.
REFERENCES Cloud, N. (2000). Dual language instruction: a handbook for enriched education. In Heinle (Eds . ). 80, 125-126, 207. Echevarría, J. (2003). Sheltered Content Instruction: teaching English-language learners with diverse abilities. In A. and B (Eds.), 54-74, 176-178. Echevarría, J., Vogt, M., Short, D. (2008). Making Content Comprehensible for English Learners. Ovando, C. J. (2003). Bilingual and ESL Classrooms: teaching in multicultural contexts. In Mc Graw Hill (Eds . ), 154-156. Segan, P (1998). The teaching of reading in Spanish to the bilingual student. In A. Carrasquillo (Ed .). 165.