Global Edition Marketing Channels: Delivering Customer Value Chapter 10
Rest Stop: Previewing the Concepts(p.318) • Explain why companies use marketing channels and discuss the functions these channels perform通路功能 • Discuss how channel members interact and how they organize to perform the work of the channel通路成員互動與通路組織 • Identify the major channel alternatives open to a company主要通路型態
Rest Stop: Previewing the Concepts(p.318) • Explain how companies select, motivate, and evaluate channel members選擇、激勵、評估通路成員 • Discuss the nature and importance of marketing logistics and integrated supply chain management行銷後勤與整合性供應鏈管理
Supply Chains and the Value Delivery Network (p.320) • Producing and making products available to buyers requires building relationships with upstream and downstream supply chain partners. • Upstream: Firms that supply the raw materials, components, parts, and other elements necessary to create a product or service. • Downstream: Marketing channel partners that link the firm to the customer.
Value Delivery Network (p.321) • Network composed of the company, suppliers, distributors, and ultimately customers who partner to help the entire system deliver better customer value. In making and marketing its many models, Honda manages a huge network of people within Honda plus thousands of suppliers and dealers outside the company who work together to bring value to final customers
Marketing Channels (p.321) • Marketing channels represent the downstream side of the value delivery network. • Downstream marketing channel partners, such as wholesalers and retailers, form a vital link between the firm and its customers. 雖然價值遞送系統包括四種角色，行銷通路僅涉及下遊
Marketing Channels (p.321) • A set of interdependent organizations that help make a product or service available for use or consumption by the consumer or business users. • Marketing channel decisions: • Affect other marketing decisions, such as pricing or product design. • Can lead to competitive advantage. DC involves long-term commitments to other firms could be developed as a sustainable competitive advantage. (中華電信+神腦)
Marketing or Distribution Channel • 配銷通路(distribution channel) • 介於買方與賣方之間，專職產品配送與銷售工作的個人與機構所形成的體系 通路成員(channel member)、 中間商(middlemen)或 流通業者(distributor)
The nature and importance of marketing channels (p.322) • From the economic system’s point of view, the role of marketing intermediaries is to transform the assortments of products made by producers into the assortments wanted by consumers.
The nature and importance of marketing channels (p.322) • How channel members add value: • The use of intermediaries results from their greater efficiency in making goods available to target markets.
The nature and importance of marketing channels (p.322) • How channel members add value: • Channel members can provide more: • Contacts (7-11全台4700家接觸面廣) • Experience (信義房屋了解顧客，提供四大保障) • Specialization (好市多7人開店，現金噴射) • Scale of operation (Wal-Mart 全球最大) • Channel members perform transaction functions.
Nature and Importance of Marketing Channels • Channel members add value by bridging the major time, place, and possession gaps that separate goods and services from those who use them. • 建構製造商與消費者之間的橋樑—解決時間、地點、所有權與數量差異。 • Members of the marketing channel perform many key functions:
Transaction Fulfilling: Physical distribution 實體配送 Financing 財務 Risk taking 風險承擔 Transaction Completing: Information 資訊 Promotion 促銷 Contact 接觸 Matching 配合 Negotiation 談判 Nature and Importance of Marketing Channels:Key Channel Functions (p.323)
Nature and Importance of Marketing Channels:Key Channel Functions (p.323) • All channel institutions are connected by several types of flows: • 通路五流： • Physical flow 實體流/物流 • Ownership flow 所有權流/交易流 • Payment flow 付款流/金流 • Information flow 資訊流/訊流 • Promotion flow 促銷流
Nature and Importance of Marketing Channels:Key Channel Functions (p.323) • The question is not whether these functions need to be performed—they must be—but rather who will perform them. • In dividing the work of the channel, the various functions should be assigned to the channel members who can add the most value for the cost.
Number of Channel Levels (p.323) • Number of channel levels:通路階層數 • Channel level • A layer of intermediaries that performs some work in bringing the product and its ownership closer to the final buyer • The number of intermediary levels indicates the length of a channel. • Direct marketing channels • Indirect marketing channels
Number of Channel Levels (p.323) Direct marketing channel • A marketing channel that has no intermediary levels Indirect marketing channel • A marketing channel containing one or more intermediary levels
Figure 10-2Consumer and Business Marketing Channels 通路階層愈長愈好？ 還是愈短愈好呢？ 不一定! 考慮：通路特性、產品特性 市場特性、競爭情勢…
Conventional Marketing System傳統行銷系統 (p.325) • A CMS consists of one or more independent producers, wholesalers, and retailers. • Each is a separate business seeking to maximize its own profits, perhaps even at the expense of the system as a whole. • No channel member has much control over the other members, and no formal means exists for assigning roles and resolving channel conflict.
Channel Behavior (p.324) • The channel will be most effective when: • Each member is assigned tasks it can do best. • All members cooperate to attain overall channel goals. 各司其職，大家通力合作不可能 • If this does not happen, conflict occurs: • Horizontal Conflict occurs among firms at the same level of the channel (e.g., between different dealers of the same brand). • Vertical Conflict occurs between different levels of the same channel (e.g., between a brand and its franchisee). • Some conflict can be healthy competition.
通路衝突型態 • 水平衝突(horizontal conflict) • 相同層級的通路成員所產生的衝突 • 與過度競爭、「撈過界」等有關 • 例如: 爭奪市場、破壞形象、不遵守協定 • 垂直衝突(vertical conflict) • 不同層級的通路成員之間所產生的衝突 • 常導因於通路成員間彼此權力的消長 • 例如: 成本/利潤衡突、進貨特別規定、付款條件、專賣要求、強行之廣告費促銷費、上架費、品牌戰爭 通路一直吵一直吵… 怎麼辦？ 就…整合吧！
Conventional Marketing Channel Vs. Vertical Marketing System 整合前—傳統行銷系統 整合後—垂直行銷系統
Vertical Marketing System • A distribution channel structure in which producers, wholesalers, and retailers act as a unified system. • One channel member owns the other, has contracts with them, or has so much power that they all cooperate.
Channel Behavior and Organization • Types of vertical marketing systems: • Corporate VMS (One channel member owns the other) 某公司擁有其他公司，所有權的整合 • Contractual VMS (One channel member has contracts with them) 用契約結盟 • Franchise organization • Administered VMS (One channel member has so much power that they all cooperate)管理方式整合 (有一公司擁有支配力，別人不得不聽他)
Corporate VMS: Vertical marketing system that combines successive stage of production and distribution under single ownership. Channel leadership is established via common ownership. Contractual VMS: Vertical marketing system in which independent firms at different levels of production/distribution join together through contracts to obtain more economies of scale than they could alone. Channel Behavior and Organization (p.326)
Channel Behavior and Organization (p.326) • Contractual VMS • Franchise organizations are a common form of contractual vertical marketing system. • Types of franchise organizations: • Manufacturer-sponsored retailer franchise • 製造與零售結盟--豐田汽車與北都汽車 • Manufacturer-sponsored wholesaler franchise • 製造與批發結盟--可口可樂與台灣可樂 • Service-firm sponsored retailer franchise • 服務與加盟店--何嘉仁美語
Channel Behavior and Organization (p.326) • Administered VMS • A vertical marketing system that coordinates successive stages of production and distribution, not through common ownership or contractual ties, but through the size and power of one of the parties. • Leadership through the size and power of dominant channel members. • Leadership could be manufacturer or retailer. • Wal-Mart、統一、玩具反斗城
Channel Behavior and Organization (p.327) • Horizontal Marketing System • Two or more companies at one level join together to follow a new marketing opportunity. • McDonald’s recently joined forces with Sinopec, China’s largest gasoline retailers, to place restaurants at more than 30,000 gas stations in China. • 佳德鳯梨酥與旅行社 • Coca-Cola and Nestle、101煙火秀 • 信用卡與旅行社 • Nova 整合電子電訊經銷商形成水平行銷系統--產生更大效率、提升競爭力
Channel Behavior and Organization • Multichannel Distribution System • Occurs when a single firm sets up two or more marketing channels to reach one or more customer segments. • Also called hybrid marketing system.
Channel Behavior and Organization • Changing channel organization: • Disintermediationis the cutting out (刪去) of marketing channel intermediaries by product or service producers, or the displacement (取代) of traditional by radical (極端的) new types of intermediaries. The Internet has made the disintermediation of many traditional retailers possible. (eg)全國最大藥妝網、統一與樂天、AMAZON
Channel Design Decisions • Analyzing Consumer Needs 分析消費者需求 • 消費者在不同的通路選購商品時希望種類多、服務好還是價格便宜？一分錢一分貨，羊毛出在羊身上 • Firm must balance needs against costs and consumer price preferences.成本與需求 • Setting Channel Objectives設定通路目標 • State objectives in terms of targeted levels of customer service.目標客群與服務內容 • Identifying Major Alternatives 確認主要選擇 • Evaluating the Major Alternatives 評估選擇
Identifying Major Alternatives (p.333) • Types of Intermediaries製造商的選擇 • Company sales force公司自設銷售團隊 • Employed directly by the firm in outside sales or insides sales capacity. • Manufacturer’s agency製造商的銷售代理商 • Independent firms whose sales people handle several companies’ products simultaneously • Industrial distributors工商品配銷商 • 消費性商品可選擇之零售型態 • 量販、便利商店、全聯社、超市、百貨公司、流動型攤商、無店舖銷售、網際網路…等
Identifying Major Alternatives (p.333) • Number of intermediaries 通路密度決策 • Intensive distribution密集式配銷 • Stocking the product in as many outlets as possible. • Exclusive distribution獨家式配銷 • Granting a limited number of outlets the exclusive right to sell a firm’s brands in their territory. • Selective distribution選擇式配銷 • The use of more than one, but fewer than all outlets that are willing to carry a product.
Number of Intermediaries(p.333) • 市場涵蓋密度 • 密集式配銷(intensive distribution) • 零售區域內盡量鋪貨，適合便利品 • 獨家式配銷(exclusive distribution) • 零售區域內一位或極少數店家，適合特殊產品 • 選擇式配銷(selective distribution) • 零售區域內有一些零售點，適合選購品 · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · ·
Identifying Major Alternatives (p.334) • Channel Member Responsibilities: • The terms and responsibilities of intermediaries must be agreed upon by the producer and intermediary. • Agreements should cover:通路協定 • Pricing policies價格政策 (不能明定) • Conditions of sale銷售條款 • Territorial rights and territorial boundaries銷售權力與銷售範圍 • Specific services to be performed特定服務
Identifying Major Alternatives (p.334) • Economic Criteria:經濟性準則 • A company compares the likely sales, costs, and profitability of different channel alternatives. • Control Issues:控制性準則 • How and to whom should control be given? • Adaptive Criteria:調適性準則 • Consider long-term commitment vs. flexibility.
Channel Management Decisions (p.335) • Selecting channel members • Evaluate each channel member’s years in business, other lines carried, growth and profit record, cooperativeness, and reputation. GE’s CustomerNet is a partner relationship management tool that offers dealers 24/7 access to GE’s prices and product availability.
Channel Management Decisions (p.336) • Managing and motivating channel members • The company must sell not only through the intermediaries but to and with them. • Most companies see their intermediaries as first-line customers and partners.第一線顧客與夥伴 • Partner relationship management • Evaluating channel members • Regularly check performance against standards such as sales quotas, average inventory levels, customer delivery time, treatment of damaged and lost goods, cooperation in company promotion and training programs, and services to customer. (p.355)