marketing channel system - the particular set of marketing channels employed by a firm.
marketing channels - sets of interdependent organizations involved in the process of making a product or service available for use or consumption
push strategy - when the manufacturer uses its sales force and trade promotion money to induce intermediaries to carry, promote, and sell the product to end users.
pull strategy - when the manufacturer uses Advertising and promotion to persuade consumers to ask intermediaries for the product, thus inducing the intermediaries to order it.
Hybrid channels or multichannel marketing - occurs when a single firm uses two or more marketing channels to reach customer segments.
demand chain planning - the process of designing the supply chain based on adopting a target market perspective and working backward.
value network - a system of partnerships and alliances that a firm creates to source, augment, and deliver its offerings.
Major Channel Alternatives 1. Exclusive distribution - means severely limiting the number of intermediaries. It’s appropriate when the producer wants to maintain control over the service level and outputs offered by the resellers, and it often includes exclusive dealing arrangements
2. Selective distribution - relies on only some of the intermediaries willing to carry a particular product. 3. Intensive distribution - places the goods or services in as many outlets as possible
Channel conflict is generated when one channel member’s actions prevent another channel from achieving its goal
Strategies to Manage Channel Conflict 1. Strategic Justification - Developing special versions of products for different channel members—branded variants
2. Dual Compensation - pays existing channels for sales made through new channels 3. Superordinate Goals - Channel members can come to an agreement on the fundamental or superordinate goal they are jointly seeking, whether it is survival, market share, high quality, or customer satisfaction
4. Employee Exchange - exchange persons between two or more channel levels. 5. Joint Memberships - marketers can encourage joint memberships in trade associations.
6. Co-option Co-optation - is an effort by one organization to win the support of the leaders of another by including them in advisory councils, boards of directors, and the like. 7. Diplomacy, Mediation, and Arbitration Diplomacy takes place when each side sends a person or group to meet with its counterpart to resolve the conflict
Mediation relies on a neutral third party skilled in conciliating the two parties’ interests arbitration two parties agree to present their arguments to one or more arbitrators and accept their decision 8. Legal Recourse If nothing else proves effective, a channel partner may choose to file a lawsuit.
I. Vertical Marketing Systems conventional marketing channel - consists of an independent producer, wholesaler(s), and retailer(s). Each is a separate business seeking to maximize its own profits, even if this goal reduces profit for the system as a whole. No channel member has complete or substantial control over other members. B. vertical marketing system (VMS) - includes the producer, wholesaler(s), and retailer(s) acting as a unified system. One channel member, the channel captain, owns or franchises the others or has so much power that they all cooperate. B.1 corporate VMS - combines successive stages of production and distribution under single ownership.
B.2 administered VMS - coordinates successive stages of production anddistributionthrough the size and power of one of the members. B.3 contractual VMS - consists of independent firms at different levels of production and distribution, integrating their programs on a contractual basis to obtain more economies or sales impact than they could achieve alone. B.3.1 Wholesaler-sponsored voluntary chains B.3.2 Retailer cooperatives B.3.3 Franchise organizations
II. Horizontal Marketing Systems - two or more unrelated companies put together resources or programs to exploit an emerging marketing opportunity. III. Integrating Multichannel Marketing Systems - the strategies and tactics of selling through one channel reflect the strategies and tactics of selling through one or more other channels.
E-commerce - uses a Web site to transact or facilitate the sale of products and services online B2C E-Commerce A transaction conducted over the Internet between a business and a consumer B2B E-Commerce A transaction conducted between two businesses over the Internet.
M-COMMERCE MARKETING Mobile Marketing is a set of practices that enables organizations to communicate and engage with their audience in an interactive and relevant manner through and with any mobile device or network. (Definition by MOBILE MARKETING ASSOCIATION)
Retailing - includes all the activities in selling goods or services directly to final consumers for personal, Non-business use.
Wholesaling - includes all the activities in selling goods or services to those who buy for resale or business use. It excludes manufacturers and farmers because they are engaged primarily in production, and it excludes retailers.