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Welcome to the Research Paper Session!

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  1. Welcome to the Research Paper Session! 6.02C & 6.03 This will take about 1 ½ hours… make yourself comfy! Learning Recovery- 6.02 and 6.03

  2. Session Sections • Overview of styles • Outline and thesis statement • Researching and creating a Works Cited page • Writing, requirements, MLA formatting Learning Recovery- 6.02 and 6.03

  3. In today’s session you will: • Learn the types of research papers • Learn about the research process. • Choose your topic. • Learn how to write your thesis statement. • Learn how to develop your outline. • Learn how to use MLA documentation. • Most importantly, you will learn how to access the resources in the course ON YOUR OWN so you can use them when you are working on your paper. 

  4. What types of research papers are there? Learning Recovery- 6.02 and 6.03

  5. Four types- we’ll be focusing on the two in red.  • Expository- A writer’s explanation of a theme, idea, or issue • Persuasive- The writer tries to convince the reader to adopt the same position on an issue or point of view • Analytical- The writer analyzes, examines and interprets: event, book, poem, play or other work of art. The paper breaks down the idea into component parts and evaluates it. • Argumentative- The writer proves their opinion, theory, hypothesis about an issue is more correct as opposed to others. The paper makes a claim about a topic and justifies this claim with specific evidence. Learning Recovery- 6.02 and 6.03

  6. What are some things you should and should not do in your research paper? Learning Recovery- 6.02 and 6.03

  7. DO Don’t Use slang Use contractions Use numbers under 100 Plagiarize! • Have a well defined thesis • Use present tense • Be well organized- know your audience and what you want to convey • Be objective- don’t use 1st person! • Decide on your approach • Use transition phrases to flow from one topic to another • Use facts, statistics, quotes and examples to convince your readers of your value • Use one idea per paragraph • Go from general to specific to general • End with a strong conclusion • Use proper grammar and punctuation! We’ll go over this! Learning Recovery- 6.02 and 6.03

  8. Step 1: • Think of a topic of interest or a burning question you have. • Argumentative • The Emancipation Proclamation • The Civil Rights Act of 1964 • The US Supreme Court • Brown v. Board of Education (1954) • Segregation • Affirmative Action • Women rights • Analytical • Scottsboro trial vs. Tom Robinson’s trial What is the relationship between history and the literature that explores it? • To Kill a Mockingbird as a timeless classic- race then and now (1930’s) • Harper Lee vs. Scout Finch-How and why do an author’s experiences influence and inspire their work? Beginning your Paper Choose a topic • This is your main idea- • What do you want the reader to know about the topic?

  9. Open a document and write this! • After you choose your topic, write your opinion of the topic and then the style you are going to write your paper in. • Topic: • Opinion about topic: • Style: Remember: If you chose one of the red topics you’ll want to do analytical. The others are more argumentative topics. Learning Recovery- 6.02 and 6.03

  10. Step 2 • Brainstorming- This is the time where you ask yourself questions about the topic, things you want to research, figure out what you already know. (It might change as you research!) • There are two ways you can do this: • Write down items randomly and then put them into categories. (Use this if you are familiar with your topic!) • OR • Write down categories and brainstorm items for each. • Your paper is 5 paragraphs so these categories will be the body of your paper. Learning Recovery- 6.02 and 6.03

  11. Step 2-Brainstorming for the Analytical approach Categories Like this! 1. Category one Detail Detail Detail 2. Category two Detail Detail detail 3. Category three Detail Detail detail • Choose three categories about your topic that you are going to analyze. • These should be areas that you can research • Now brainstorm three items for each category Do the red first and then the black! Learning Recovery- 6.02 and 6.03

  12. Example Scottsboro trial vs. Tom Robinson’s trial analytical paper categories • Racial prejudices: What were the views at the time? • Setting: How does it contribute to the trial? • Outcome and lesson: What techniques did the author use based on the real? Learning Recovery- 6.02 and 6.03

  13. Step 2-Brainstorming for the Argumentativeapproach For Argumentative papers there are two approaches- Do you find it better to sell your idea first and the present the counter arguments and refute them? Or do you like to conquer each one individually? • Category 1- Con(s)+ refutation(s) opinions of others that you disagree with • Detail • Detail • Detail • Category 2- Pro idea 1 • Detail • Detail • Detail • Category 3-Pro idea 2 • Detail • Detail • Detail • You can put the green section either before or after the Pro ideas. • Category 1-Con idea 1 • Your refutation • Your refutation • Your refutation • Category 2-Con idea 2 • Your refutation • Your refutation • Your refutation • Category 3- Con idea 3 • Your refutation • Your refutation • Your refutation Learning Recovery- 6.02 and 6.03

  14. Example Women’s Rights argumentative paper categories Women are not worth as much as men in the work force. Women are not as strong as men in sports Women are not as smart as men. Learning Recovery- 6.02 and 6.03

  15. Your turn! This does not have to be perfect….it should only take 5-10 mins. Argumentative Analytical 1. Category one Detail Detail Detail 2. Category two Detail Detail detail 3. Category three Detail Detail detail • Category 1-Con idea 1 • Your refutation with example • Your refutation with example • Your refutation with example • Category 2-Con idea 2 • Your refutation with example • Your refutation with example • Your refutation with example • Category 3- Con idea 3 • Your refutation with example • Your refutation with example • Your refutation with example Learning Recovery- 6.02 and 6.03

  16. Step 3- categories to outline!!!Example: Women’s Rights argumentative paper categories & details • Women are not worth as much as men in the work force. • Different strengths and example • Some men are weak willed and example • Think differently and example • Women are not as strong as men in sports • Not competing against each other and example • Some are more agile and example • Some are stronger and example • Women are not as smart as men. • Hillary Clinton and example • Queen Elizabeth and example • Oprah and example Learning Recovery- 6.02 and 6.03

  17. Step 3: Create your outline from your categories! This is SUPER simplified! • Women are not worth as much as men in the work force. • Different strengths and example • Some men are weak willed and example • Think differently and example • Women are not as strong as men in sports • Not competing against each other and example • Some are more agile and example • Some are stronger and example • Women are not as smart as men. • Hillary Clinton and example • Queen Elizabeth and example • Oprah and example • I. Introduction • General history • Reason why it is important • Thesis statement II. Women are not worth as much as meninthe work force. • Different strengths and example • Some men are weak willed and example • Think differently and example III. Women are not as strong as men in sports • Not competing against each other and example • Some are more agile and example • Some are stronger and example IV. Women are not as smart as men. • Hillary Clinton and example • Queen Elizabeth and example • Oprah and example • V. Conclusion • Restating why it is important • Wrapping up my ideas • Restating my thesis statement Copy what is in black to your document; put your categories in place of my colored categories. We will work on the thesis statement next, so leave it blank! You can add it in a minute! Learning Recovery- 6.02 and 6.03

  18. For a longer paper…. I. A. 1. a. b. 2. a. b. B. 1. a. b. 2. a. b. II. A. 1. a. b. 2. a. b. • Remember when you go more specific in a category you need to do the same for the other categories. • This is called parallelism. Learning Recovery- 6.02 and 6.03

  19. What is a thesis statement?Write down what you know! Learning Recovery- 6.02 and 6.03

  20. Step 4: Create a Thesis statement! • States the main idea, your opinion, and your categories. • You will be answering these questions in your thesis statement: What is the topic, what is your opinion, how are you going to prove your opinion is correct? • You must state your opinion without using “I” • Use descriptive words either positive or negative to get your opinion across strongly. Learning Recovery- 6.02 and 6.03

  21. Write some descriptive words! Positive Negative Yes!!! Remember: A thesaurus is your friend! Learning Recovery- 6.02 and 6.03

  22. Characteristics of an Excellent Thesis Statement • Concise - one sentence • States the main idea, the subcategories, and your opinion. • Clear • Do NOT ask a question in your thesis statement • Take a position and offer your reasons • Purposeful • Answers the Questions • What? • How? • Why? Or So What?

  23. Example thesis statements • The Bad. . . • “There are some positive and negative aspects to exercising every day.” • This is a weak thesis statement. First, it fails to take a stand. Second, the phrase negative and positive aspects is vague. • . . . and the Good • “Exercising every day helps to promote and maintain a healthy lifestyle by increasing cardiovascular health, decreasing an unhealthy body mass, and improving overall strength and flexibility.” • This is a strong thesis because it takes a stand, is provable, and is specific. • Other good examples . . . • “The number of spectators, amount of profit, and popularity of championship games proves that football, not baseball, is the true American past-time.” • "Through Mansfield's skillful handling of point of view, characterization, and plot development, Miss Brill comes across as a convincing character who evokes our sympathy."

  24. Analytical vs.Argumentativethesis statement • An analysis of the college admission process reveals one challenge facing counselors: accepting students with high test scores or students with strong extracurricular backgrounds. • The paper that follows should: • explain the analysis of the college admission process • explain the challenge facing admissions counselors VS. • High school graduates should be required to take a year off to pursue community service projects before entering college in order to increase their maturity and global awareness. • The paper that follows should: • present an argument and give evidence to support the claim that students should pursue community projects before entering college • http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/545/1/

  25. Our categories and possible thesis • Women are not worth as much as men in the work force. • Women are not as strong as men in sports • Women are not as smart as men. In the past women have been wrongly portrayed as not as strong, smart or worth as much as men. • Racial prejudices: What were the views at the time? • Setting: How does it contribute to the trial? • Outcome and lesson: What techniques did the author use based on the real? An analysis of the real Scottsboro trial in comparison to Harper Lee’s fictional trial of Tom Robinson clearly demonstrates the reality of racial prejudices found in her classic “To Kill a Mockingbird”. Learning Recovery- 6.02 and 6.03

  26. Recap on our example thesis statements • Equal rights for women in America have been an evolution of recognizing and fighting against the unfair issues in the past and present. • In the past women have been wrongly portrayed as not as strong, smart or worth as much as men. • An analysis of the real Scottsboro trial in comparison to Harper Lee’s fictional trial of Tom Robinson clearly demonstrates the reality of racial prejudices found in her classic “To Kill a Mockingbird”. • The fictional trial in Harper Lee’s classic, “To Kill a Mockingbird”, beautifully mimics the realtrial of the Scottsboro brothers. • Harper Lee’s classic, “To Kill a Mockingbird”, successfully demonstrates southern attitudes towards racism by using Lee’s life as a template for her main character Scout Finch. • "The Civil Rights Act of 1954 was the most important piece of legislation in American history for African Americans, women, and people with disabilities. " Learning Recovery- 6.02 and 6.03

  27. Your turn! Using your topic and categories create your thesis statement.Remember: Characteristics of an Excellent Thesis Statement • Concise - one sentence • States the main idea, the subcategories, and your opinion. • Clear • Do NOT ask a question in your thesis statement • Take a position and offer your reasons • Purposeful • Answers the Questions • What? • Why? Or So What? • How?

  28. Insert your thesis into your outline! This is 6.02C! It should look like this when you submit it. • Topic: Women’s Rights • Opinion: I think they have been treated poorly! • Style: Argumentative • I. Introduction • General history • Reason why it is important • Thesis statement II. Women are not worth as much as men in the work force. • Different strengths and example • Some men are weak willed and example • Think differently and example III. Women are not as strong as men in sports • Not competing against each other and example • Some are more agile and example • Some are stronger and example IV. Women are not as smart as men. • Hillary Clinton and example • Queen Elizabeth and example • Oprah and example • V. Conclusion • Restating why it is important • Wrapping up my ideas • Restating my thesis statement Learning Recovery- 6.02 and 6.03

  29. 6.03 Use your outline to write your paper! Learning Recovery- 6.02 and 6.03

  30. What do you know about researching? Learning Recovery- 6.02 and 6.03

  31. Researching • Researching is the process of discovery! • Don’t be afraid to change the focus of your paper. • Use reliable sources. • Document everything you use! • Prove your thesis! Learning Recovery- 6.02 and 6.03

  32. Prove the thesis • Remember that this is a research paper. • You are using RESEARCH to prove your position. So, we need to do some research to PROVE your thesis statement . Learning Recovery- 6.02 and 6.03

  33. Tools of the trade • Primary source- important evidence that has been gathered by the writer. • Secondary source- texted used to discuss, analyze, comment on an issue or a subject. (This is what most students encounter.) • Quotation- The way the writer tells the reader that they are using a secondary source. Use either a : or a , before the quote. • If the sentence is complete before the quote use a : • If the sentence is incomplete use a , • Use quotes to prove your writing is correct. Avoid using too many quotes!

  34. Locating Reliable Sources • Use OUR library,Google or Yahoo and search fortwo reliable sources of information about the topic. (history, jobs available, benefits of it…and so on). • Sources that are not reliable and won’t be accepted! • Blogs, wikis (such as www.wikipedia.com), and personal web pages of individuals. Look for sites ending in .gov or .edu

  35. Additional Resources (these are also in your lesson, bottom of 6.02 Investigate tab) • When you come across something you are unsure how to format or cite, take a look at the following for help. When in doubt, look it up! • easybib.com • The Easybib site helps you to create a works cited page by having you fill in information about your source. Once you fill in the information, the site formats the entry for you. • University of Wisconsin-Madison Writing Center site http://www.wisc.edu/writing/Handbook/DocMLA.html • The University of Wisconsin-Madison Writing Center is a site offering many examples of formatting and citing specific types of sources. The link provided will take you directly to the page with more information on works cited pages and internal documentation. The home page for this writing center offers other examples of writing you may be interested in, as well. My favorite!

  36. 1 It should look like this 2 Paste your url here then hit the green button! Learning Recovery- 6.02 and 6.03

  37. 3 You need to check the information! 4 Then create! Learning Recovery- 6.02 and 6.03

  38. 5 Your citation! 7 6 Click here next! Your citations will automatically be alphabetized! Learning Recovery- 6.02 and 6.03

  39. 8 The citation maker creates this awesome document that you can copy and paste at the end of your paper! Remember the Works Cited page is the last page of your paper. Learning Recovery- 6.02 and 6.03

  40. Last page! Doe 11          Works Cited Begley, Sharon, et al. "Mapping the Brain." Newsweek 20 Apr. 1992: 66-70.      Berger, Bob. "Mapping the Mindfields." Omni Jan. 1992: 56-58. Damasio, Antonio R. "Aphasia." The New England Journal of Medicine 326 (1992): 531-39.      Diagram Group. The Brain: A User’s Manual. New York: Putnam’s, 1982. Flieger, Ken. "Memories Are Made of This." FDA Consumer Sep. 1989: 14-19. Rpt. in Mental Health. Ed. Eleanor C. Goldstein. Vol. 4. Boca Raton: SIRS, 1989. Art. 16.      Johnson, Keith A., and J. Alex Becker. "The Whole Brain Atlas." Harvard Medical School.  1997. 3 Feb. 2002 <http://www.med.harvard.edu:80/AANLIB/ home.html>.      Kolb, Brian, and Ian Q. Whishaw. "Brain." Encyclopedia of Human Biology. Ed. Renato Dulbecco. Vol. 2. San Diego: Academic, 1991. 1-10. 8 vols. Kotulak, Ronald. Inside the Brain: Revolutionary Discoveries of How the Mind Works.  Kansas City: Andrews and McMeel, 1996. Learning Recovery- 6.02 and 6.03

  41. Where is all of this in the lesson? Learning Recovery- 6.02 and 6.03

  42. Where you can find EVERYTHING!!!! HYPERLINKS RULE! Learning Recovery- 6.02 and 6.03

  43. Forgot how to research???? Don’t forget to use your teacher as a resource if you are stuck!!! Forgot how to do MLA???? Learning Recovery- 6.02 and 6.03

  44. Writing! Learning Recovery- 6.02 and 6.03

  45. Tools of the trade • Paragraphs- paragraphs are used to keep the information organized. One idea per paragraph! • Don’t repeat the same words in the paragraph find a thesaurus and change it up! • Transition sentences- allow the reader to go from one idea to another easily and are found at the beginning of the new paragraph. Great rule of thumb: include the last idea and the new idea in the first sentence. • Parallelism- makes the text easier to read by making the sentence structure similar. Often found in persuasive writing.  • http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/section/1/5/

  46. Click here Search here MLA Format Click here Learning Recovery- 6.02 and 6.03

  47. http://owl.english.purdue.edu/ • Note – this is my absolute favorite source to use for ALL your writing needs! If you need to check how to write anything…this is the place to go! Learning Recovery- 6.02 and 6.03

  48. Important things to remember about your paper • It is NOT an essay: do not use the first person • No “I”, “my”, or “me” • You are PROVING something, so you need to use the research that you find to support what you’ve said. • You need to document your sources properly… • You need to proofread! Learning Recovery- 6.02 and 6.03

  49. MLA Format • Header on the right must be last name and page number • On the left your name, your instructor’s name, the class, and the date (backwards) • Title (centered) • Every paragraph indented 5 spaces • Works Cited page (centered) • Your sources alphabetical • Times New Roman, 12 pt. double spaced Learning Recovery- 6.02 and 6.03

  50. Page number Type your last name Learning Recovery- 6.02 and 6.03