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How Music Works, Part IV: Texture and Form PowerPoint Presentation
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How Music Works, Part IV: Texture and Form

How Music Works, Part IV: Texture and Form

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How Music Works, Part IV: Texture and Form

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  1. How Music Works, Part IV: Texture and Form Chapter 6

  2. Definitions • Texture: Relationships between the notes, rhythms, melodies, patterns, and vocal and instrumental parts that emerge and evolve in a musical work. • Form: The large-scale dimensions of musical organization; how musical works and performances develop and take shape from start to finish, phrase by phrase and section by section.

  3. Types of Textures • Single-line texture, aka monophonic texture • Unison: PL 6-1 (Gregorian Chant) • Polyphonic textures • Melody-plus-drone: PL 6-2 (Scottish bagpipes) • Harmonized: PL 6-3 (South African choir), PL 6-4 (John Lennon, “Imagine”—melody, chords) • Multiple-melody: PL 6-5 (Ramadu), PL 6-6 (Gamelan, Java), PL 6-7 (BaMbuti) • Polyrhythmic: PL 6-8 (“Gahu”) (Is this an ethnocentric term?) • Interlocking: PL 6-9 (siku), PL 6-10 (kadinda) • Call-and Response: PL 6-11 (Seckou Keita)

  4. Types of Forms, Part I • Through-composed forms • Forms based on repetition and patterns • Ostinato-based forms • PL 6-12 (“Xai” [Elephants]) • Qwii people, Kalahari Desert • Nkokwane (hunting/musical bow) • Note varied ostinatos • PL 6-13 (Tito Puente, “Oye Como Va”) • Layered ostinatos: saxophone (1:06), trombone (1:21), trumpet (1:37) • See Figure 6.1, p. 81

  5. Types of Forms, Part II • Cyclic Forms • Indian music, Indonesian gamelan music • 12-bar blues • PL 6-14, Charles Atkins, “A Funny Way of Asking” (Fig 6.2, p. 83) • Cycle 1 (0:00-0:20): Saxophone solo • Cycle 2 (0:21-0:40): Verse 1 (sung) • Cycle 3 (0:41-1:00): Verse 2 (sung) • Cycle 4 (1:01-1:21): Saxophone solo

  6. Forms with Contrasting Sections • “Forms with multiple, identifiably distinct sections (called formal sections). The different sections in such forms often contrast with one another musically. For example, there may be a modulation from one key to another, a change in the chord progression or instrumentation, or a change in the meter or rhythmic structure from one section to the next. Often, multiple changes such as these will occur simultaneously.” (p. 82) • Verse-chorus form among the most common • Shawn Mendes, “There’s Nothing Holdin’ Me Back” [PL 6-15] • Devi Lovato, “Sorry Not Sorry” [PL 6-16]

  7. “Ingculaza (AIDS)” [PL 6-17] • Dumisani “Ramadu” Moyo (Zimbabwe) • Verse-chorus form • Intro, Verse 1, Chorus 1, Verse 2, Chorus 2, electric guitar solo (“replaces” Verse 3), Chorus 3 (“looped” at end) • Follow along with form chart on p. 84 while listening • Portion of song text (translated from Ndebele language) Everybody in my village is crying about you You have taken away my sisters, brothers and innocent souls including children What shall we do? How should we behave? The answer is simply to “prevent rather than cure” in order to have a healthy community with a good life and a happy future.