Industrial Cathlyn Telebrico World History 4th 01/04/2010 Revolution (1750’s - ?)
Agricultural Revolution (prior to industrial revolution)
Enclosure Movement • Wealthy land owners closed off their owns lands to increase land holdings • Benefits of the enclosure movement – • More land could now be experimented with new agricultural methods and crops. • Negatives of the enclosure movement – • Small farmers were forces to become tenants for neighboring farms or farmers in the city.
Seed Drill 1701 A.D. • The seed drill was invented by JehtroTull in 1701 A.D. • It planted seeds in a straight line and spaced them out. • The crops were planted in an orderly fashion and the seeds did not have to fight over space to grow. anymore No seeds were wasted. The seed drill is still used today. • More seeds germinated so higher crops yield.
Crop Rotation • The crop rotation process was invented by Charles Townsend • Before, farmers left a field fallow, but now, they would rotate crops. • Leaving a field fallow means that the farmers’ production was low. • Now, the production goes up, and the different crops also replenish the nutrients in the soil. • It increased the food for humans and animals.
Agricultural Revolution • Effects of the Agricultural Revolution – • Food increased and people were able to have better diets and health. As people had better diets and health, they’re life span became longed, causing the population to increase. • The larger population increased the demand for food and goods. Workers were now available to work in factories.
The Flying Shuttle • The flying shuttle was invented by John Kay in 1733 A.D. • It allowed thread to be woven into cloth faster. • It doubled the amount of cloth output per worker / per day.
The Spinning Jenny 1764 A.D. • The spinning Jenny was invented by James Hargreaves in 1769 A.D. • The spinning jenny is a spinning wheel that works eight threads at a time. • It spun cotton into thread. • There was a shortage of thread before the pinning jenny, but the spinning jenny made a way to produce threads.
Water frame 1769 A.D. • The water frame was invent by Richard Arkwright in 1769 A.D. • It is also called the spinning frame. • The water frame worked the spinning jenny. • Instead of human power, water power was used. • It spun cotton into thread faster.
Spinning Mule 1769 A.D. • The spinning mule was invented in 1769 A.D. by Samuel Compton. • Up to 400 spindles of thread were working at a time. • The spinning mule made better thread.
Power Loom 1787 A.D. • The power loom was invented by Edmund Cartwright in 1787 A.D. • The power loom used water power for weaving thread into cloth.
Cotton Gin 1793 A.D. • Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin. • Cotton for thread came from American colonies, increasing demand for slaves. • The seeds in cotton were difficult to remove, so the cotton gin was created to remove the seeds by machine instead of hand. • It was needed because of the demand for cotton, thread, cloth, etc. • The cotton gin increased production from 1.5 million pounds to 55 million pounds.
Newcomen Steam Engine 1712 A.D. • This steam engine was invented by Thomas Newcomen. • It was the first steam pump to remove water from coal mines. • Water flooded coal mines in the winter. • The only negative factor in this invention was that it often exploded because it pressured too much.
Steam Engine Improvements 1769 A.D. • James Watt improved the steam engine. • It had more power, less coal, and it was more reliable. • It also enabled the development of a reciprocating engine, with upwards and downwards power strokes more suited to transmitting power to a wheel
Puddling Process 1783 A.D. • The puddling process was invented by Henry Cort in 1783. • It refined iron and made it stronger. • New techniques for making sheets of iron were developed. • This enabled a great expansion of iron production around the world.
Bessemer Process 1855 A.D. • The Bessemer process was invented by Henry Bessemer. • During the Bessemer process, a blast of cold air goes through the iron ore to remove all impurities. • It made the production of steel (iron mixed with other metals) easier and quicker. • Steel was now stronger and more workable. • It triggered the growth in other industries.
Roads 1800 A.D. • John McAdams invented a new way of designing roads. • He invented a new process, “macadamisation”, for building roads with a smooth hard surface that would be more durable and less muddy than soil-based tracks. • Turnpikes were used as a toll. • Companies paid to use the roads because they made traveling easier.
Railroads 1829 A.D. • The first railroads were built by George Stephenson in 1829. • The first steam powered locomotives were invented. • The Rocket – 20 mph. • In 1850, 5,000 miles of railroad tracks were built in Britain. • Steel tracks replaced the iron tracks, and train speeds were up to 60 mph. • Raw materials, factories, and workers were now closer together.
Steamships 1793 A.D. • Robert Fulton is credited for developing the first steamship. • The Clermont was the first commercial steamship used to carry passengers between New York City and Albany, New York. • Canals (human made water ways) were created. • By 1850, the network of canals reached 4,250 miles!
Telegraph 1793 A.D. • Samuel Morse was the American inventor of a single-wired telegraph system and the Morse Code. • The telegraph sent messages by electrical impulses. • People were now able to communicate within seconds or minutes, instead of waiting days and weeks.
Interchangeable Parts 1793 A.D. • Eli Whitney introduced the idea of interchangeable parts to the U.S. • He built ten guns and disassembled them before the U.S. Congress. He placed the parts in a mixed pile and was able to reassemble all of the guns back in front of the Congress. • Before, everything was made by hand, now parts were made by machines • Broken machines were now able to be fixed by replacing the broken parts.