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From World War to Cold War

From World War to Cold War

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From World War to Cold War

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  1. From World War to Cold War Ch. 31, Sec. 5

  2. Aftermath of World War II • Holocaust horrors uncovered • United Nations (UN) formed • Breakup of wartime alliances • New conflicts develop • Cold War: communism vs. capitalism • U.S. vs. U.S.S.R.

  3. Nuremberg Trials • In May 1945, Winston Churchill, Harry S. Truman, Joseph Stalin and Charles De Gaulle agreed that an international military tribunal should try the leaders of Nazi Germany for war crimes. • It was decided to charge the men and women on four counts: • Crimes Against Peace (planning and making war) • War Crimes (responsibility for crimes during war) • Crimes Against Humanity (racial persecution) • Conspiracy to Commit other Crimes.

  4. Nuremberg Jail

  5. The Nuremberg judges. Nuremberg Bench

  6. Nuremberg Trials • Allied leaders had agreed to punish those responsible for “crimes against humanity”. • 12 Trials were held in Nuremberg, Germany, from Nov. 1945 through Sept. 1946. • Hitler was already dead, but 22 surviving Nazi leaders were tried. • Some received the death penalty; others were imprisoned. • Similar trials were held in Japan and Italy.

  7. Defendants

  8. Nuremberg: Revealed the Nature of Evil No trial provides a better basis for understanding the nature and causes of evil than do the Nuremberg trials from 1945 to 1949.  Those who come to the trials expecting to find sadistic monsters are generally disappointed. What is shocking about Nuremberg is the ordinariness of the defendants: men who may be good fathers, kind to animals, even unassuming--yet who committed unspeakable crimes.

  9. Of 22 major defendants, 12 were sentenced to death. One of these was Hermann Göring, considered to be the most important surviving official after Hitler's death.

  10. Convicted of Crimes Against Humanity

  11. Hideki Tojo What about Japan??? • As Prime Minister of Japan during most of WWII, he was directly responsible for the attack on Pearl Harbor, although planning for it had begun before he entered office. • At the end of the war, Tojo was arrested, sentenced to death for Japanese war crimes by the International Military Tribunal for the Far East and was hanged in December 1948.

  12. “By the judgment of the Nuremberg Tribunal, October 1, 1946, it was established that the highest officials of a government are answerable before the bar of international courts for committing war crimes, crimes against peace, and—in connection with either of these—crimes against humanity.” - Harry S. Truman Leaders CAN be held accountable for their actions during war!!!

  13. Nuremberg Influence The Nuremberg trials had a great influence on the development of international criminal law. The Conclusions of the Nuremberg trials served as models for: • The Genocide Convention, 1948. • The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948. • The International Criminal Court (headquartered at the Hague in Netherlands).

  14. Genocide • Genocide is defined as "the deliberate and systematic destruction, in whole or in part, of an ethnic, racial, religious, or national group”. • At the Nuremberg trials, defendants claimed they had violated NO laws! • As a direct response, in 1948, the UN Passed the Genocide Convention which made genocide a crime.

  15. Genocide Convention, 1948 Adopted by the United Nations • It defines genocide in legal terms • Defined acts punishable as genocide: (a) Killing members of the group; (b) Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; (c) Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part; (d) Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group; (e) Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group.

  16. United Nations In an effort to maintain peace, the Allies formed the United Nations, which officially came into existence on October 24, 1945, and adopted The Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948, as a common standard for all member nations.

  17. Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948 • The Declaration arose directly from the experience of the Second World War and represents the first global expression of rights to which all human beings are inherently entitled. •

  18. The Hague • Establishment of a permanent International Criminal Court. • The Nuremberg trials initiated a movement for the prompt establishment of a permanent international criminal court, eventually leading over fifty years later to the adoption of the Statute of the International Criminal Court.

  19. Potsdam Conference: July, 1945 • FDR dead, Churchill out of office as Prime Minister, Stalin only original. • Germany would undergo demilitarization and denazification. • Stalin set himself up to take ALL of East Germany ……….the Cold War begins. Prime Minister President Joseph Clement Atlee Truman Stalin

  20. The U.S. & the U.S.S.R. emerged as the Two Superpowers of the late 20th century