Organic Compounds • Organic Compounds are large and have unique characteristics • They carry out complex functions • Four Examples • Carbohydrates • Lipids • Proteins • Nucleic acids
Properties/Characteristics • Organic compounds • Has to have Carbon in it-carbon can form many bonds and make large molecules • Useful materials for building body structures • Held together by Covalent Bonds • Other elements that bond with Carbon-Sulfur, Nitrogen, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Phosphorus---SPONCH • Attached to functional groups • Some do not dissolve easily in Water
General Terms to Know • Macromolecules-(macro=large)-very large molecules • Polymers-(poly=many, mers=parts)-large molecule formed by the covalent bonding smaller building blocks • Monomers-(mono=one)-smaller building blocks used to build polymers • Covalent bonding-forms bonds by sharing of electrons • Isomers-(iso=equal or same)-molecules that have the same molecular formula but different structures • Dehydration Synthesis-(de=from, down, or out: hydra=water)-when two smaller molecules join to form a larger one and a water molecule is formed or removed from the reaction (Synthesis reaction) • Hydrolysis-(lysis=to loosen or break apart)- when a larger molecule is broken down into smaller molecules by the addition of a water molecule(decomposition reaction)
I. Why are 2/3 of the molecules in the human body comprised of H2O? • Water stores heat very efficiently. • The evaporation of water enables organisms to release heat and maintain homeostasis.
II. A solution is a mixture where one or more substances (solutes) are evenly distributed in another substance (solvent). • Ionic and polar compounds dissolve well in water. • Ions are attracted to the charges on H2O. • Atoms become evenly distributed in the water if their concentration is low enough. • Polar molecules stick together and shove non-polar substances, like oil, together. • Biochemical reactions occur best within a liquid environment which allows molecules to interact with one another.
II. Carbohydrates are a key source of cellular energy. • Ratio = 1:2:1 1 Carbon: 2 Hydrogen: 1 Oxygen (There may be many of each) Example… glucose -> C6H12O6
Types of sugars • A monosaccharide(single sugar) called glucose is produced by photosynthesis. • A disaccharides(double sugar) called sucrose is table sugar. • Polysaccharides(3 or more sugars) are formed for “longer-term” energy storage (starches) or structural purposes (cellulose in plants).
Question: What are some carbohydrates you’ve heard of? • Sugar provides a quick source of energy. • Starch for energy storage in plants like potatoes. • Glycogen for energy storage in animals. • Cellulose in the supportive cell walls of plants.
Simple vs Complex Carbs • Examples
III. Lipidsare non-polar molecules used for long-term energy storage and as a key component in cell membranes. • Bonds hold energy, so fat molecules which contain many bonds, store lots of energy. • Saturated fats are chains where each carbon is bonded to 2 hydrogen (a lot more hydrogen than a carbohydrate). • Unsaturated fats are chains where some carbons are only bonded to one hydrogen.
Question: How can you tell the difference between a saturated and unsaturated fats when you cook? Saturated fats are solid at room temperature such as bacon grease (bad for you)! Unsaturated fats are liquid at room temperature such as Olive Oil (more healthy)!
IV. Nucleic Acids like DNA and RNA hold and carry an organism's plans for life. • Nucleic acids are composed of chains of nucleotides. • DNAis a double strand of nucleotides, responsible for storing information in the cells nucleus. • RNAis a single strand of nucleotides used to transport information out of the nucleus during the manufacture of proteins.
VI. ATP, a nucleotide, is the main energy currency for a cell for its metabolism. • ATP is short for AdenosineTriphosPhate • When carbs and lipids are broken down, the energy is “re-stored” as ATP.
VI./3. ATP is ADP plus a phosphate. + ADP ATP equals This bond equals stored energy!
V. Proteins are chains of amino acids. • Since some amino acids are polar and others aren't, proteins twist into specific shapes dependent on their sequences. • The shape of a protein determines its functionality and interaction with other molecules. • Proteins have many functions in your body: • Structural-Collagen in bone, keratin in skin, hair • Regulatory-function as hormones-(Insulin), neurotransmitters • Contractile-shortening of muscle cells (myosin) • Immunological-Protect body (antibodies) • Transport-carry vital substances through body-(hemoglobin) • Catalytic-Act as Enzymes
Question: What would occur if a protein’s shape were altered? Since the functionalities of proteins are often determined by their shape, a mutation resulting in a shape change may change the abilities of a protein. This is most often a problem for the cell, but in rare instances may result in increased, or different abilities of existent proteins.
Metabolism • Metabolism-(metabol=change)-refers to all the chemical reactions of the body-Its an energy balancing act between Catabolic reactions(Decomposition) and Anabolic reactions(Synthesis) • Catabolism-(cata=downward)-chemical reactions that break down larger(complex) molecules into smaller(simpler) molecules, and release chemical energy stored in bonds-Ex-Glycolysis • Anabolism-(ana=upward)-chemical reactions that combine smaller(simpler) molecules to make larger(complex) molecules and need energy added to build bonds. Ex-combining amino acids to make proteins