Insect and Disease PestsIn Delaware’s Forests Envirothon Training
Symptoms vs. Signs • Symptoms • Changes in the plant’s appearance that indicate something is happening. Ex: crown dieback, wilting, cankers. • Signs • Indications of the insect or disease itself. Ex: frass, pitch tubes, fungal fruiting bodies.
THE ENVIROTHON SEVEN! • Know these: • Emerald Ash Borer • Asian Longhorned Beetle • Southern Pine Beetle • Gypsy Moth • Sirex Wood Wasp • Bacterial Leaf Scorch • Sudden Oak Death • For each, know: • Native/non-native • Present in Delaware? • Host species • Symptoms & Signs • Type of damage • Control measures
Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) Adults are bright green and easy to identify. • Non-native • Has not been found in Delaware, but present in Maryland • A threat to ash trees only • Larvae create galleries in the cambium of infested trees, girdling the trees
Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) D-shaped exit hole, splitting bark Galleries Woodpeckers feeding Crown dieback
Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) • Control in our area = ERADICATION (Remember, it has not been detected yet in Delaware) • Cut all ash trees in the area of new infestations. Chip the trunks and branches to a small size.
Asian Longhorned Beetle (ALB) • From China • Has been detected in New York, New Jersey, not DE • Threatens numerous types of trees, particularly the maples.
Asian Longhorned Beetle (ALB) • The beetle develops within the xylem (wood) and then bores its way out. Eventually the many exit holes will destroy the cambium and kill the tree. The weakened wood can also cause structural failure (tree breaks in half).
Asian Longhorned Beetle (ALB) • Large exit holes are conspicuous signs of ALB infestation.
Asian Longhorned Beetle (ALB) Infested trees must be removed, and chipped to destroy all beetles.
Asian Longhorned Beetle (ALB) Packing materials are inspected at ports of entry.
Southern Pine Beetle (SPB) • Native • Present mainly in southern DE • Hosts are hard pines (all except white pine) • Chews galleries which can girdle trees. Also introduces a harmful fungus. • Delaware is at the northern end of its range. A more serious pest in the South.
Southern Pine Beetle (SPB) • Infested stands can be detected with aerial surveys. Infested pines display brown foliage.
Southern Pine Beetle (SPB) Small round holes S-shaped galleries Pitch tube
Southern Pine Beetle (SPB) Control Infested trees can be cut and burned, chipped, or sprayed.
Gypsy Moth • Non-native • Introduced into Massachusetts in 1869. Since then it has spread throughout the northeast, including Delaware.
Gypsy Moth • Larvae feed on the leaves of many broadleaved species, particularly the oaks. • Host trees are damaged through defoliation.
Gypsy Moth • When severe defoliation occurs several years in a row, widespread mortality can result.
Gypsy Moth Defoliation can be seen from the air during June survey flights Egg masses
Gypsy Moth • Egg masses are easily seen in the fall. These methods can determine the need for a control program the following spring. • Control = chemical sprays.
Sirex Wood Wasp • Non-native • Has not been found in Delaware • Threatens loblolly and other pines • Forms galleries that injure trees • Carries a fungus that causes more damage
Sirex Wood Wasp Symptoms / Signs Resin beads Round exit holes Wilting and discoloration
Sirex Wood Wasp Control • Control measures unknown (new pest) • Biological controls have been successful in other parts of the world • Early detection surveys in DE using trap trees Red pine trap tree at White Clay Creek SP
Bacterial Leaf Scorch (BLS) Control: • Native to the United States • Present throughout Delaware • Hosts = red oaks and other trees • Mainly northern red, pin, black, and scarlet oaks • Symptoms = Marginal leaf scorching in late summer and fall, dieback
Bacterial Leaf Scorch (BLS) • The bacteria are spread (vectored) by insects that feed on the xylem • Bacteria reproduce and physicallyclog the xylem • Simply a “plumbing” problem. Not enough water can move through the xylem to branches and leaves, so living tissues dessicate and die. Bacteria clogging xylem
Bacterial Leaf Scorch (BLS) Symptoms Marginal leaf scorch Dieback
Bacterial Leaf Scorch (BLS) Control • No proven prevention • No proven cure • Treatment trials ongoing in Delaware and elsewhere • Do not plant northern red oak or pin oak
Sudden Oak Death (SOD) • Non-native • Has never been found in Delaware • Threatens oaks and other trees, as well as viburnums and other understory plants • Two types of symptoms: • Understory plants • Foliar scorching • Twig dieback • Overstory trees • Bleeding stem cankers • Dieback +
Sudden Oak Death (SOD) Understory plants Overstory Trees Twig dieback Bleeding canker Foliar symptoms Dieback
Sudden Oak Death (SOD) Control: • No control in generally infested areas such as California • Control in other areas is quick response after detection. Cut, pile, and burn is an accepted prescription in new detection areas. • Quarantines are in place to prevent new introductions.