Historical Nursing Practice Dr. Belal Hijji, RN, PhD October 4th, 2010
Learning Outcomes • At the end of this lecture, students will be able to: • Discuss the various historical events that influenced nursing in the past
Historical Events That Influenced Nursing Practice in the Past • Women’s roles: • Through their roles as wife, mother, and sister, women cared for and nurtured other family members. • Nursing could have its roots in “the home” as mothers cared for infants and children • Women were subservient and dependent; they were called to care for sick people in the community • Wars: • Wars accentuated [أبرزت، أكدت] the need for nurses. In the Islamic era, nurses such as Rufaidah Al Aslamiyah, joined with other nurses the battle field to care for the injured. During peace, Rufaida, who was the first nurse in Islam, set up a tent outside the Prophet's mosque where she nursed the sick. She was involved in social work in the community. She came to the assistance of every Muslim in need: the poor, the orphans, or the handicapped. She had a teaching role. • During the Crimean war (1854-1856), Nightingale was called to recruit female nurses to care for the sick and injured. Nightingale was successful in reducing a hospital mortality rate from 42% to 2%. • During the American war (1861-1865), several nurses made notable contribution to the care and safety of civil and military people
”منذ فجر الاسلام كان هناك مجاهدون ذائدون عن حياض الدعوة وشرفها، كما حدث في وقعتي بدر وأحد وغزوة خيبر. ففي تلك المعارك نجد هناك سيدات مسلمات فاضلات خدمن الدين والوطن بالغالي والرخيص، عملن كالآسيات والطبيبات يسعفن المرضى ويضمدن ويعالجن الجرحى، ويقدمن الدواء الشافي لمنكوبي الحرب، والماء الزلال للعطشى، والعناية بالمتألمين السقماء في خيم أقيمت كالعيادات أثناء الحرب، أو بجانب المسجد أثناء السلم. مثل ذلك ما قامت به رفيدة بنت سعد الأسلمي (الطبيب والمنجم) في يثرب وأمينة بنت قيس الغفارية، وأم عطية الأنصارية، ونسيبة بنت كعب المازنية مع زوجها وأولادها حتى أنها أصيبت في معركة أحد بعدة جراح أثناء قيامها بالواجب“ . المصدر حمارنه، سامي خلف مقدمة في تاريخ العلوم الطبية عند العرب والمسلمين، المجلد الأول، جامعة اليرموك، 1986.
Societal attitudes: • Society attitudes about nurses and nursing significantly influenced professional nursing • Before 1850, nursing was without organisation, education, or social status; nurses were poorly educated; some were incarcerated criminals • Society viewed nurses as “caring” for the sick by acts of negligence, stealing, and physical abuse. Nurses were also seen as doctor’s handmaiden. Of course, these portrayals greatly influenced negative images and attitude towards nurses up to contemporary times. • Late in the 19th century, the angel of mercy image arose due to the work of Nightingale who brought respectabilityto the profession. Nurses were viewed as noble, compassionate, moral, religious, dedicated, and self-sacrificing. • during the 2nd World War, the heroine portrayal evolved from nurses’ contributions in fighting poliomyelitis. • Late in the 20th century, nurses were seen as sex object and body expert • However, during the past few decades, professional nursing organisations and private institutions in the US took steps to improve the image of the nurse and nursing profession.
Nursing leaders • Florence Nightingale: Improved the standards of care for wounded soldiers; she reformed hospitals, implemented public health policies, and was the first nurse to exert pressure on government to build children’s hospitals. • Clara Barton: Clara volunteered as a nurse in the American civil war, was responsible for organising the nursing services, and is noted for her role in establishing the American Red Cross. • Linda Richards: Linda was America’s first trained nurse who graduated from a hospital in 1873. She is known for introducing nursing notes and doctors’ orders. She is a pioneer in psychiatric and industrial nursing. • Mary Mahoney: Was the first African American nurse who graduated from a hospital in 1879. She fought for the promotion of equal opportunities. The ANA gives a Mary Mahoney Award biennially in recognition of her significant contribution to interracial relationships.
Lillian Wald: Lillian is the founder of public health nursing. She offered trained nursing services, social services, and educational and cultural activities. • Lavinia Dock: She participated in protest movements for women’s rights that resulted in the amendment of the US Constitution in 1920 which granted women the right to vote. She also campaigned for legislation to allow nurses, not physicians, to control their profession.