Requirements • Present results systematically • Undertake a partial replication of and report on one simple experiment • Use descriptive statistics only • Produce a written report of between 1000 and 1500 words that must consist • of: • Title page • Abstract • Introduction* • Method: * • design, participants, material, procedures • Results* • Discussion* • References • Appendices * Included in word count • Time allocation: 15 hours
General Presentation • Pages should be numbered consecutively with the introduction being page 1 • Refer to the people taking part in the experiment as “the participants” • Report must be word processed • Must be within the word limits: 1000 – 1500. The sections included in the word count: introduction, method, results, discussion • TITLE PAGE • Title • Candidate name & number • Subject & level • Date, month & year of submission • Word Count • ABSTRACT • Summary of aims • Summary of methods • Summary of results • Conclusion
General Presentation continued • INTRODUCTION • Aim • Identification and explanation of study being replicated • METHOD • Design: type & justification of design, controls, ethical considerations, identification of variables (dependent & independent • Participants: characteristics of target population, sampling techniques (describe) • Materials: list of materials used, reference to copies in appendices • Procedures: itemized in sufficient detail to allow full replication • RESULTS • Interpretation of descriptive statistics • Graphs/tables where appropriate (may be computer generated)
General Presentation continued • DISCUSSION • Discussion of results • Linking of results to study being replicated • Identification of strengths and limitations of methodology • Suggestions for modification and further research • REFERENCES • Works cited within the report • APPENDICES • Supplementary information • One copy of instrument(s) used • Copy of standardized instructions and debriefing notes • WORDS • 1000 - 1500 • MARKS • 20
I/A Experiment Suggestions • Stroop Effect(Stroop; Dyer) • Interference on Recall • Person perceptions (Asch; Anderson & Barrios) • Music and memory • Time of day and recall • Is performance impeded by noise? • Visual search(Neisser; Jonides & Gleitman) • Perceptual set • Eye-witness reports (Loftus & Palmer; Loftus & Zanni) • Social facilitation • Memory & serial position curve
InteractiveStroopEffectExperiment The famous “Stroop Effect” is named after James Ridley Stroop who discovered this strange phenomenon in the 1930s. Here is your job: name the colors of the following words. Do NOT read the words...rather, say the color of the words. For example, for the word BLUE, you should say "RED". Say the colors as fast as you can.
Interference on Recall Giraffe zebra gazelle antelope bison cheetah rattle snake black widow rhesus crocodile hyena gorilla water buffalo dingo scorpion Study the following words:
Interference on Recall Write down as many words from the list as you can recall
Interference on Recall Study the following words: Orange elm birch redwood oak juniper Palm sequoia pistachio almond lime willow Walnut crape myrtle hemlock
Interference on Recall Write down as many words from the list as you can recall
Person perception • Read the following personality traits and determine, on a scale of 1-10 the person’s • (1) trustworthiness, (2) likeability, & (3) warmth Charlie: Introverted Disorderly pessimistic Dry-witted social Soft-hearted Disagrees with nuclear testing Armando: Outgoing Orderly Social Angry pessimistic shady Agrees with nuclear testing Those hearing positive traits first might rate the person more favorably on a ten-point scale
Music and Memory Study the following words: euphoric stealth unanimous integrity chocolate green hat flag hand Canada Edward vampire Toot cereal pen
Music & Memory Write down as many words from the list as you can recall
Music and Memory Study the following words: sign mouse sun dirt Bruce bionic automobile red stiletto flyswatter bookshelf tulip stripes taupe printing
Music & Memory Write down as many words from the list as you can recall
Time of Day and Recall • Memory recall tests given at different times of the day • Morning • Before lunch • After lunch • Afternoon • Evening
Is performance impeded by noise? • Subjects have a task to perform with & without noise. ie. 1st: Give multiplication table test to silence 2nd: Give multiplication table with recording of construction work in the background.
It will take longer to find the “x”s than the “s”s Visual Search Find the “X”s YZYZYZZYYZYZYZYZXYZY YZYZYYZYZYZYYZXYYXYY YYXYZYYXYZYZYZYZYZYZ ZYYZYZYYZYZYYXYYZYYZ ZYZYZYZYYZZYYZYZZYZYZ RPRPRPPPRRPPPPSPPRPPRP PPRPPPRPPRPSPPRPPRPRPR PPSPRPPRPPRPRPRPSPRPPR PRPRPPRPRPRPSPRPPPRPRR PRPPRPRRPRPSPRPPPRPPSR Find the “S”s
Perceptual Set eter cei hocsol arihc dario repap chtaree rusiec gnso hpleneat gerit refert birabt nilo tarorp kel rhsoe • Solving lists of anagrams is easier if all the words belong to a category (e.g. animals) than if they are random.
Eye witness reports • Answer the following questions: • What color are the balloons? • What color is the female victim’s hair? • What toy starts the domino effect? • What is the name of the killer? • What does the ball knock over? • What color is hat is the male victim wearing? • What comment is made by the observers? • Watch the following video clip
Social facilitation • Do people tend to perform better when in groups than when on their own? • Subjects can be given tasks (e.g. word searches, math worksheets) in groups & individually to test this theory
Memory & serial position milk eggs chocolate pork chops bacon Kool-aid cheese bananas lettuce catsup mustard lunch meat coffee bread hamburger toilet paper tea artichoke applesauce dressing corn pasta tomato sauce oil Parmesan rice chicken bread crumbs • Study the following list of words Serial position: primacy & recency effect show that you are more likely to remember the first and last items on a list.
Title Page • Candidate name and number • Title • Subject and level • Date, month and year of submission • Word count An experiment to investigate how memory can be distorted by a distraction Kayla Rodriguez 06000000 Franklin High School Psychology Standard Level March 4, 2005 Word count: 1,406
ABSTRACT Allows the reader to understand quickly what the researcher expected, how the study was carried out, the results and the conclusion drawn. • Summary of aims • Summary of methods • Summary of results • Conclusion
INTRODUCTION The Introduction section should be about 400 – 500 words and include background theory and research which logically leads into the aim of your study. • Identify the particular aspect of the discipline of psychology in which your study took place. • Start with a brief statement about the nature of this area • “Over the years the concept of beauty has changed. Technology, along with the media’s fervent desire to advertise “beautiful” people has distorted our concept of what true beauty is. This is why an experiment on attractiveness is so interesting.” • Include a definition, if meaningful • “…the mind creates a false memory that is similar to the actual one to trigger other parts. This can also be called memory illusions.” • “Memory is the retention of learning or experience.”
INTRODUCTION cont’d • Introduce the aspect of the larger area to which the study was relevant • “We constantly read in our daily lives. Would this suggest that the sight of words in a scene are processed quicker than the scene itself?” • “There is evidence that memories are not accurate records of our experiences.” • Talk about the particular topic that your study addressed • “This experiment was performed to see what extent beauty is taken into consideration when someone is considered attractive and how a person’s personality outweighed their attractiveness.”
INTRODUCTION cont’d • Review the background material relevant to your study • This is NOT an exhaustive list of all the research available, only two or three studies which are directly related to your research question. • These studies will be referred to again in the Discussion section • “An experiment conducted by Barber, McKenzie and Helme (1997) explained how the human brain responds differently to classical music than it does to rock style music.” • “On the other hand, the McFarland and Kennison study (2004) assumes that the right hemisphere of the brain processes the music…”
INTRODUCTION cont’d • Outline the precise problem you chose to investigate and describe the way you went about investigating it. • Briefly state the problem you chose to investigate • Give clear justification as to why this topic is important to study • Give your reader the general idea of how you went about doing your study. • “These experiments are designed to ask the participants to search for a specific object among different objects known as distracters and respond as quickly as possible. Whether or not the specific object is present in the visual field, these types of experiments are designed to test the participants’ attention.”
INTRODUCTION cont’d • Outline the results predicted by your research hypothesis. • Clarify WHY and HOW your study tests this • “The results showed that the participants’ performance and quickness in finding the green circle in the easy visual search was more efficient and quicker than compared to the hard visual search. Difficult and elaborate distracters did thereby hinder participants’ perform.” • State your aim • “The aim of these experiments is to find out how well participants’ attention is drawn to a specific object and how fast they can locate that object.” • “The aim of our experiment is to test the automatization of people through the usage of stroop effect cards.”
INTRODUCTION cont’d Introduction order: • A general introduction to the psychological subject area under investigation • Summary of the key theories and research studies. This must include proper references, for example, Zajenc (1965). MUST CITE ONE REFERENCE • A rationale and justification for the study • Aim I/A Introduction criteria Markband 2 • Aim of the study is clearly stated • Study being replicated is clearly identified and explained
INTRODUCTION cont’d • Score • 0 There is no introduction or it is irrelevant • 1 The aim of the student’s study is imprecise, or the study being replicated is identified but not explained. • 2 The aim of the student’s study is clearly stated and the study being replicated is clearly identified and explained.
INTRODUCTION cont’d • Standard Level Example 1 • 2 The aim is clearly stated and the study being partially replicated is identified and explained. • Standard Level Example 2 • 1 The aim is clearly and properly stated. The study being replicated is identified, but not explained beyond a basic description. • Standard Level Example 3 • 1 The aim has been stated and the study being replicated has been mentioned, although very briefly and poorly explained.
INTRODUCTION - EXAMPLES Most people are very advanced in reading words. Often our ability to read is thoughtless. For most, it takes effort not to read. With this reading proficiency we have developed an ability to read a name quicker than identifying what it is we are looking at or for. In some cases reading the words can actually interfere with our identification of the information we are actually seeking. Ridley Stroop did the first study on interfering word stimuli in 1932 with his studies on the effects of interfering word stimuli on naming color words….. Aim: to investigate if interfering word stimuli have an affect on the time it takes for subjects to name given ink colors. In the past, high school students did not have too many things to worry about, or have as much homework as high school students today. There are many more distractions and it is becoming harder and harder to concentrate and to be able to memorize information. Some students find that if they have music in the background they are able to work and memorize information successfully, while other students find it more difficult to do these things. Frequently it depends on the type of music that is being played and its volume. An experiment conducted by Barber, McKenzie, and Helme (1997) explained how the human brain responds differently to classical music than it does to rock style music….On the other hand, the McFarland and Kennison study assumes that the right hemisphere of the brain processes the music……this contradicts the experiment by Barber, McKenzie and Helme(1997)… Aim: To determine the effectiveness of music type on the student’s memorization skills.
METHOD - Included in word count This section is where you will describe how your study was designed and carried out. This is the only section that should be subdivided into four parts, each with a label. Precision and clarity are necessary as this is where you demonstrate your understanding of the quantitative research methodology topics. • Design • State experimental method (simple experiment) • Identify and justification type of design • Identify and explain any controls used (monitoring participant response) • Address ethical considerations (consent, debrief, confidentiality, voluntary) • Independent and dependent variables clearly identified I/A Design criteria Markband 2 • Independent and dependent variables accurately identified • Design is appropriate and justified • Evidence that psychology course ethical guidelines are followed
METHOD – included in the word count The method section should be about 300 - 400 words and must be subdivided into four parts: design, participants, materials, procedures. This section is where you will describe how your study was designed and carried out. This is the only section that should be subdivided into four parts, each with a label. This section requires thoroughness of your description in each of the sub-sections. Precision and clarity are necessary as this is where you demonstrate your understanding of the quantitative research methodology topics. Anyone should be able to replicate your study EXACTLY by reading through this part of your report.
METHOD cont’d • Design (One of the briefer sections) • State which type of design was used and, more importantly, WHY it was used. • “A Between-subjects design and a Double-blind technique were used in this experiment.. ….the Between-subjects design was used so that the participants were randomly placed the group using the double-blind technique. “ • “In this experiment, the researcher used within-subject design to see if different types of music would have an effect on a person’s memory. It was logical to use within-subject design because the word lists were different so the participants could not cheat and there were no sequencing effects because the two lists were different and randomly put together.”
METHOD cont’d • Describe all controls that were used • “…a double-blind technique was used so that neither the researchers nor the participants knew who was receiving the questionnaire that used either the verb “hit,” “smashed,” or “collided.” • Design cont’d • “ …in order to control the confounding variable, the research could have selected all the participants with similar IQs to do the experiment. “ • Discuss ethical considerations taken into account • “Before the experiment began, the researcher asked the participants to sign a consent form. The researcher also let the participants know that it was confidential and they have the right to withdraw.” • State what the independent variable was – operational definition • “The independent variable in this experiment was the music play while participants worked.”” • “IV: the verb used” • State what the dependent variable was – operational definition • “DV: the participant’s speed estimate” • “The dependent variable was how well participants can memorize to different types of music.”
METHOD CONT’D • Participants • Sample size (15 – 20 participants) • Characteristics of population sample (number of participants, age, gender, even some variables) • Selection and allocation procedures identified and justified (If not sampling randomly, must be clearly justified) I/A Participants criteria Markband 2 • Characteristics of the target population are identified • Sample is selected using an appropriate method • Method of selection is justified
METHOD cont’d • State number of participants in each condition/group • “There were overall 31 participants in both the sessions” • Participants • State the age range • “They were aged between 14 and 15 years of age.” • “All the participants were between the ages of sixteen and seventeen.” • Include the number of each gender • “ These were 15 males and females out of …” • “ There were fifteen females and sixteen males.” • Give an idea of the population from which the sample was taken • …out of 180 students in year 9 in IB at Franklin High School, Stockton, California, USA.” • The classroom where the participants were picked was from an available sample.” • “The participants were students from Franklin High School.”
METHOD cont’d • State method used in selection – be honest! • The participants were selected by availability.” • Participants cont’d • “The participants were selected because they were the only available subjects.” • “The classroom where the participants were picked was from an available sample; choosing random numbers to pick the names of 15 students.”: • If applicable, in the experiment, discuss how participants were allocated to groups • “The same participants were in both sessions because the researcher wanted to compare the results of the same groups.” • “Participants were placed in groups using random selection.”
METHOD CONT’D • Materials • List of materials developed for experiment • Basic materials such as tables, chairs, paper, pencils, need not be listed • With reference to a sample copy to be included in the appendix as applicable • The full text of, for example, standardized instructions, informed consent and debriefing notes should be included in the appendix
METHOD cont’d • Can be in the form of a list • “Video – Sentenced for Life(see appendix II) • Questionnaires (see Appendix III)” • Materials • List what is used, not how it is used • “Data table (see appendix 9) • 16 black and white photos (see appendix 4-20)” • Do not include references to pens, pencils, chairs or tables, etc. • State that a sample of the materials is included in the appendix • Rush CD • Beethoven CD • List of the 25 state capitals (appendix I) • Consent form (appendix III)
METHOD cont’d • Include mention of standardized instructions – full description in appendix • “Instructions (appendix IV)” • Materials cont’d • Include mention of debriefing notes as well – full description in appendix • Debriefing notes (appendix VI)
METHOD CONT’D • Procedure • Carefully and accurately describe how the experiment was carried out • In chronological order beginning with the development of materials • Must provide enough detail so another researcher could replicate the experiment. • Must include reference to any ethical issues that were addressed • For example, when debriefing was carried out I/A Procedure criteria Markband 2 • Procedure is relevant • Procedure is clearly described • Procedure is easily replicable
METHOD cont’d • Do not discuss the strategy, but rather HOW you did your study • “The first step was to collect eight black & white photographs of dark-haired white males, and eight black …….were obtained from the Internet…..were taken two at at time….” • Procedure • Written in chronological order, clear and concise • “The first step was typing out a certain…..Then using the same set of words…Two sets should be…Next, create a consent form….When approaching participants…clearly describe to the participant what the instructions…After…ask participants…Record….repeat….” • Must include enough information to allow thorough and complete replication. • State whether you ran your study in groups or individually • “ Participants were called in twos…..then they were called back one at at time….”
METHOD cont’d • Address the issue of standardization • “All participants were given the same instructions and the same materials to perform the experiment.”.” • Procedure cont’d • Mention the process of debriefing • “Participants were then debriefed.” • “After the experiment was finished, the researcher debriefed the participants and explained that the results would be made available to them at a later date.”
METHOD cont’d • Standard Level Example 1 - Design 0 The variables are correctly identified and the method is appropriate. The experimental design has not been identified but more importantly, ethical guidelines have not been followed. This study uses children as participants yet there is no indication that parental informed consent was obtained. Additionally, there was no debriefing and deception was used without justification. • Standard Level Example 1 – Participants 1 The characteristics of the participants were discussed and the sampling procedure was mentioned but not justifi3ed
METHOD cont’d • Standard Level Example 2 - Design 2 The variables are identified and design is appropriate and justified. Ethical guidelines have been followed and controls identified. • Standard Level Example 2 – Participants 2 The characteristics of the target population have been identified and random selection was used.