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The French Revolution

The French Revolution

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The French Revolution

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  1. The French Revolution Liberty Leading The People by Delacroix

  2. The French Revolution In The Beginning... 1789-1792

  3. Why the French Revolution is important • Why it matters: • The French Revolution became the model for revolution in the modern world. • Unlike the American Revolution which began a new form of enlightenment gov’t – the French revolution broke the centuries old class based society of Europe • The power of nationalism was first • experienced during the French Revolution • and it is still powerful in existing nations and emerging nations today. • The French Revolution spread the principles of liberty and equality, which are held dear by many nations and individuals today.

  4. What Happened When in the French Revolution

  5. student outline • Rule of kings until 1789 • Estates general called in 1789 • Fall of Bastille July 1789 • New Constitution 1789-1791 • Republic 1792 • Extremists in power 1793 • Reign of Terror 1793-1794 • The Directory 1795 • Napoleon First Consul 1799 The French Revolution of 1789

  6. The Three Estates The Estates General is the French body of lawmaking 2nd estate Nobility 3rd Estate Bourgeoisie Commoners Peasants 1st Estate Clergy

  7. Louis XIV calls the Estate General into legislation to ask for money Last time it was called into session was 1614!

  8. The Number of Representativesin the Estates General: Vote by Head! Clergy 1st Estate 300 Aristocracy 2nd Estate 300 648 Commoners 3rd Estate

  9. “The Third Estate Awakens” • The commoners finally upset they don’t get fair representation • They proclaimed themselves the “National Assembly” of France.

  10. “The Tennis Court Oath”by Jacques Louis David June 20, 1789

  11. Storming the Bastille, July 14, 1789 • A rumor that the king was planning a military coup against the National Assembly. • 18 died. • 73 wounded. • 7 guards killed. • It held 7 prisoners [5 ordinary criminals & 2 madmen].

  12. The Great Fear: Peasant Revolt(July 20, 1789) • Rumors that the feudal aristocracy [the aristos] were sending hired brigands to attack peasants and pillage their land.

  13. National Constituent Assembly1789 - 1791 Egalité! Liberté! Fraternité! August DecreesAugust 4-11, 1789 (A renunciation of aristocratic privileges!)

  14. The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen August 26, 1789 • Liberty! • Property! • Resistance to oppression!

  15. What the new French Republic did Established the National Assembly to run the gov’t Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen 1. Rights for all men (abolish of feudal ways) 2. Public office open to all who are qualified (granted not by birth anymore) 3. No one is exempt from taxes 4. Freedom of press and speech 5. Every citizen has a right to participate in the making of laws Olympe de Gouges said this includes women! Citizens marched on palace of Versailles, forced concessions from King Louis XVI, and the royal family become prisoners of palace

  16. March of the Women,October 5-6, 1789 A spontaneous demonstration of Parisian women for bread. We want the baker, the baker’s wife and the baker’s boy!

  17. Louis XVI “Accepts” the Constitution & the National Assembly. 1791

  18. How to Finance the New Govt.?Confiscate and sell Church Lands (1790) One of the most controversial decisions of the entire revolutionary period.

  19. New Relations Between Church & State • Government paid the salaries of the French clergy and maintained the churches. • The church was reorganized: • The pope had NO voice in the appointment of the French clergy. • It transformed France’sRoman Catholic Churchinto a branch of the state!! Pope Pius VI[1775-1799]

  20. Constitution of 1791 Montesquieu anyone?

  21. 1792 The rest of Europe gathers to stop the French Revolution. They call themselves the The First Coalition they sign theBrunswick Manifesto Everyone fears: “when France sneezes all of Europe catches a cold”

  22. The Creation of the Republic and Wars • The French revolutionary army changed the nature of modern warfare and was an important step in creating modern nationalism. • Previously, small armies fought wars between governments and ruling dynasties. • The new French army was a people’s army fighting a people’s war on behalf of a people’s government. Warfare also became more destructive.

  23. This military crisis undermines the new Legislative Assembly. 1792-1797 FRANCE AUSTRIAPRUSSIABRITAINSPAINPIEDMONT

  24. Checking for Understanding Define Match each definition in the left column with the appropriate term in the right column. C B D A __ 1. the middle class, including merchants, industrialists, and professional people __ 2. obligations of peasants to noble landlords that survived into the modern era __ 3. “without breeches,” members of the Paris Commune who considered themselves ordinary patriots (in other words, they wore long trousers instead of fine knee-length breeches) __ 4. one of the three classes into which French society was divided before the revolution: the clergy (first estate), the nobles (second estate), and the townspeople (third estate) A. estate B. relics of feudalism C. bourgeoisie D. sans-culottes

  25. The French Revolution and the Radical Phase 1793-1794

  26. The Jacobins (a group from Paris, France) rise to power in the new French government They will establish the Committee of Public Safety which watches the actions of others. Now it isn’t safe to trust anyone!

  27. The Political Spectrum TODAY: 1790s: The Plain(swing votes) Montagnards(“The Mountain”) Girondists Monarchíen(Royalists) Jacobins

  28. The “Second” French Revolution • People wonder if the King should be allowed to live…

  29. The Political Chaos • The Girondins (rural) wanted to keep the king alive. • The Jacobins (especially the Mountain -left branch) wanted the King killed.

  30. Things Go Wild There is murder and mayhem and chaos in the streets. The Jacobins take over. The Reign of Terror begins.

  31. The Storming of the Tuilieres:August 9-10, 1792 This was triggered in part by the publication in Paris of the August 3 Brunswick Manifesto, which confirmed popular suspicions concerning the king’s treason.

  32. The National Convention(September, 1792) • Its first act was the formal abolition of the monarchy on September 22, 1792. • The Year I of the French Republic. • The Decree of Fraternity • it offered French assistance to any subject peoples who wished to overthrow their governments. When France sneezes, all of Europe catches cold!

  33. The Political Spectrum TODAY: 1790s: The Plain(swing votes) Montagnards(“The Mountain”) Girondists Monarchíen(Royalists) Jacobins

  34. Maximillian Robespierre(1758 – 1794)

  35. Who were the important Jacobins? B. To respond, the National Convention formed the 12-member Committee of Public Safety, led first by Danton and then by Maximilian Robespierre. • Robespierre was a lawyer and activist, so known for his honesty that he was called “The Incorruptible.” • He followed Rousseau’s ideas in The Social Contract, and he believed that anyone who would not submit to the general will as he interpreted it should be executed.

  36. Committee for Public Safety • Revolutionary Tribunals. • 300,000 arrested. • 16,000 – 50,000 executed.

  37. The Levee en Masse:An Entire Nation at Arms! – 500,000 Soldiers An army based on merit, not birth!

  38. The “Monster” Guillotine The last guillotine execution in France was in 1939!

  39. A French physician, Joseph-Ignace Guillotin, was instrumental in having a law passed requiring all sentences of death to be carried out humanely by “means of a machine.” Use of the guillotine, named for Guillotin,continued in France through the 1970s. In 1981, France outlawed capital punishment.

  40. The Reign of Terror Terror is nothing other than justice, prompt, severe, inflexible. -- Robespierre Let terror be the order of the day! • The Revolutionary Tribunal of Paris alone executed 2,639 victims in 15 months. • The total number of victims nationwide was over 20,000!

  41. Louis XVI’s Head (January 21, 1793) • The trial of the king was hastened by the discovery in a secret cupboard in the Tuilieres of a cache of documents. • They proved conclusively Louis’ knowledge and encouragement of foreign intervention. • The National Convention voted 387 to 334 to execute the monarchs.

  42. Marie Antoinette Died in October, 1793

  43. Different Social Classes Executed 7% 8% 28% 25% 31%

  44. War of Resistance to the Revolution:The Vendee Revolt, 1793

  45. Why was there a Revoltin the Vendee? The need for 300,000 French troopsfor the war effort. Rural peasantry still highly taxed. Resentment of the Civil Constitution the Clergy. Peasants had failed to benefit fromthe sale of church lands. Local government officialsNational GuardsmenJurying priests TARGETS:

  46. The Reign of Terror (cont.) • A new calendar was adopted. Years were numbered from September 22, 1792, the first day of the French Republic, and not from Christ’s birth. • The calendar contained 12 months with each month having three weeks of 10 days, with the tenth day a day of rest. This practice eliminated Sundays. • Robespierre realized, however, that France was too Catholic to be dechristianized.

  47. The New Republican Calendar

  48. The Radical’s Arms: No God!No Religion!No King!No Constitution!