Water Resources, Use and Management Jump Up! Game
Water cycle • The process by which water evaporates from the oceans, condenses into clouds, and causes precipitation to fall back to Earth • Extension Question: What role does transpiration play in the water cycle? Transpiration also adds water vapor to the atmosphere, which can condense into precipitation
Aquifer • An underground structure that holds groundwater • Extension Question: Why is it important to keep pollutants out of aquifers? Aquifers are the main source of drinking water for people in the world.
Condensation • The process by which water turns from a gas to a liquid • Extension Question: Why does water condense on the outside of a cold water bottle on a hot day? Water vapor in the air cools when it hits the cold bottle. The vapor condenses into liquid water, causing “sweat”.
Watershed • An area of land that drains to a river • Extension Question: What are the 6 primary watersheds found in PA? Delaware, Potomac, Susquehanna, Genessee, Erie, Ohio
Surface runoff • When water falls to Earth and, due to the forces of gravity, moves downward off of the land into a body of water (such as a river, lake, or ocean) • Extension Question: What kinds of damage can surface runoff cause to an ecosystem? Surface runoff can wash away soil and can also bring pollutants from the land tocreeks, lakes, rivers, and oceans.
Collecting basin • A body of water in a low-lying area between two divides; water runs here • Extension Question: What is the creek that acts as the collecting basin for Wallingford? Swarthmore? Brookhaven? Wallingford = Ridley Creek Swarthmore = Crum Creek Brookhaven = Chester Creek
Groundwater • Water stored beneath Earth’s surface; only 22% of Earth’s freshwater is found here • Extension Question: What do humans use groundwater for? We use groundwater for drinking, cooking, cleaning, watering plants, and many other household activities.
Transpiration • The process by which water travels up a plant stem and evaporates through the leaves • Extension Question: Why is it important that transpiration occurs in plants? How does it help plants survive? Transpiration allows water to move up a plant stem and through the leaves. This hydrates the plant.
River system • A series of small bodies of water that all drain to one main body of water • Extension Question: What river system dominates Eastern PA? The Delaware River System
Flood plain • A relatively flat area that borders a collecting body of water • Extension Question: What flood plain(s) exist near SHHS? The fields below the library and near Providence Road are a floodplain.
Recharge zone • An area of Earth’s surface that is permeable to water and allows it to percolate down to an aquifer • Extension Question: Why is it important to keep pollutants out of a recharge zone? A recharge zone has porous materials under it, so pollutants can easily run down into the groundwater from this area.
Divide • A high area (usually a mountain, hill or otherwise) which separates two watersheds • Extension Question: What divides exist near SHHS? The school is a divide; water on the back side runs to the pond, while water on the front side runs towards Swarthmore. There is a divide near the pond; some water runs to the pond, while other water runs to Brookhaven road
Contributing land • The area of Earth’s surface from which water runs into a particular collecting basin • Extension Question: What land contributes to the pond watershed at SHHS? The land behind and to the side of the school, As well as some of the residential land near Brookhaven Road.
Evaporation • The process by which water turns from a liquid to a gas • Extension Question: Why is evaporated water so pure? (In other words, why doesn’t it have impurities in it?) Salts and other minerals do not evaporate easily and are left behind while the water turns to a gas.
Porous • A substance that has holes in it and can thus hold water • Extension Question: Give three examples of porous substances Sponges, gravel, and sand are all porous.
Precipitation • Any form of water that falls to the Earth’s surface from the clouds • Extension Question: What types of precipitation exist? Rain, sleet, snow, hail
Freshwater • Water that is not found in the ocean and does not have a high concentration of salt • Extension Question: What percentage of the water on Earth is freshwater? 2.5%
Percolate • When a substance moves down through a porous material • Extension Question: Describe how water percolates down to an aquifer. Water moves down through porous materials due to gravity.
Permeable • Means “to let substances pass through”, like water • Extension Question: What materials in Earth’s crust are permeable to water? Soil, sand and gravel are all permeable to water.
Well • A hole dug deep enough to reach the groundwater • Extension Question: What can humans do if a well runs dry? Humans can dig deeper to reach the water table and find more groundwater.
Confining bed • An area near an aquifer that is not permeable to water • Extension Question: What are confining beds usually made of? Confining beds are made of nonporous substances like granite or clay