Today, we will… • Today, we will compare and contrast the strengths and weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation using cloze notes, an inference matrix, an acrostic poem, and if chosen a fotobabble or talking picture.
Who made decisions or who had the right to make decisions about the United States during the War for Independence? Preview: Take a moment and on the next left page in your spiral, try to answer the above question. What do you think?
Who Am I? • I have 13 members! • It takes 9 of my members to agree before we can do anything. • We have no courts, no power to tax, and no executive branch. • We can declare war and negotiate treaties. • We came into existence in 1777 and ceased to exist in 1787.
Let’s See How It WorkedEach group represents a state • Situation 1: Pennsylvania and Virginia both claim the last west of the Appalachian Mountains and south of the Ohio River. Who gets the land? Let’s vote… • Situation 2: American veterans were promised pay for their service. Rhode Island says it doesn’t have any money to give to the U.S. to help pay the former soldiers. It suggests Virginia, New York, and Pennsylvania pay the soldiers since they have the most money. Who pays? Let’s vote… • Situation 3: Virginia refuses to give the U.S. any money that will pay soldiers in states that have outlawed slavery. Who makes them pay?
I am THE ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION • The 1st constitution of the United States • Written by John Dickinson of Pennsylvania • League of friendship between the states • Each state retained its own sovereignty and had one vote • Established a limited, weak national government due to distrust of government • POWER belonged to the States, not national government!
What’s a confederation? 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 = 1 • A type of government • Members retain their own sovereignty but come together to make certain decisions • Examples are the United Nations, The European Union, Canada, The Iroquois Confederation, and The South during the Civil War
The said States hereby severally enter into a firm league of friendship with each other, for their common defense, the security of their liberties, and their mutual and general welfare, binding themselves to assist each other, against all force offered to, or attacks made upon them, or any of them, on account of religion, sovereignty, trade, or any other pretense whatever.
This is the constitution and government • Created by the 2nd Continental Congress (the same group of people that put George Washington in charge of the Continental Army and passed the Declaration of Independence). • That fought and won the American Revolution • That negotiated the Treaty of Paris of 1783 • That passed the Northwest Ordinance and the Ordinance of 1787
Remember Northwest OrdinanceThis was strength of the Articles • Created an orderly way for territories to become states AND • FORBADE the spread of slavery into the Northwest Territory (will be important later).
But it had its weaknesses… Are you ready to find out what?
Placard Feature Why this was included in the Articles of Confederation Possible Problems with this Feature A Lack of Leadership from central government. No single leader for the government. • DIRECTIONS: • Look at picture • Read the information provided on placard AND matrix • Look at the heading to figure out what goes in the blank boxes • Fill in the blanks on the matrix Fear of a tyrant having all the power – didn’t want another George III No Executive
B Laws needed approval by nine of thirteen states Fear of having one state or one region controlling everything – wanted each state to have equal power. VERY difficult to get things done – 9 states rarely agreed on any 1 thing like in our classroom votes.
C Congress did not have the power to tax citizens. It could only request tax money from the states No power to tax = no money to pay bills; no money to pay soldiers; no money except what was given. If state didn’t give money; the national government had NO money. States were sovereign; the nation was NOT. Did not want national taxes – taxes to be local only - fear of what happened with England and overtaxation.
D The government didn’t have the power to draft men into the military. States had right to call out their militias – volunteer at national level. That way national government couldn’t use soldiers against citizens. No military, no way to respond to emergency.
E Fear that a national court system would be loyal only to the federal government. Trials would be more unfair like they were in the king’s courts. No national court system No way to settle disputes or national issues
F Nearly impossible to make changes to the Articles. Any one state could stop an amendment that all the other states wanted. 13/13 states had to agree to any change Fear that a change could hurt one state’s interests so every state had to agree for an amendment.
G Fear of a strong central government that could force states to pay for things they didn’t want. Each state had its own currency – people had to switch back and forth; states couldn’t be forced to pay back the national government. No power to coin/make money or make states pay their debts
H Congress did not have the power to settle disputes among the states Fear of national government favoring one state over another. States had boundary disputes and no way to settle them; could break into war
Write an ACROSTIC POEM using ALL the letters from the “Articles of Confederation.” Each line should make a statement about either a strength or weakness of our first constitution… A O C R F O T N I F C E L D E E S R A T I O N Closure Activity – Finish for Homework if necessary
Congress controlled the money Owned the military too No power for the nation Foreign powers had no respect Even American soldiers were upset Demands made but no power to make things happen A success in some way Ran the government during the Revolution The states had all the power Included only a legislature Courts didn’t exist Left no place for a president Each state equal Sovereign in its own right Only states could tax Feds could only ask For example…to start…
And to close Create a “talking picture” being the Articles of Confederation using “Fotobabble.”