Community-Based Adaptation • Climate change is global, but impacts are regional and local • Impacts will affect different communities differently based on their specific circumstances • …so, solutions must be locally specific • CBA is community-driven • CBA is the grass-roots component of climate change adaptation • CBA will respond to locally specific needs, and develop lessons for global and national stakeholders to further adaptation practice
The CBA is a global programme, with pilot countries selected to represent a variety of ecosystems and climate impacts • The CBA will be implemented in 10 countries: • Bangladesh • Bolivia • Guatemala • Jamaica • Kazakhstan • Morocco • Niger • Namibia • Samoa • Viet Nam
Key Characteristics • The UNDP-GEF CBA Project is funded by the GEF Strategic Priority on Adaptation • Portfolio of 8-20 projects per country • Project size: <$50,000US • Projects will require 1:1 co-financing in cash • CBA will be a separate portfolio of projects, nested within SGP Jamaica • CBA programme period will be 5 years • 2008 through 2012 • Projects will deliver adaptation benefits, as well as global environmental benefits in a GEF focal areas
The SPA is focused on ecosystem resilience • The CBAis funded by the GEF Strategic Priority on Adaptation • SPA funding is intended to fund the subset of adaptation activities that also generate global environmental benefits / make global environmental benefits resilient to climate change.
CBA Projects and the SPA Community-Driven Development Priorities • CBA Projects will be community-driven, addressing local development priorities • Like SGP projects, CBA projects will be selected in regions where community development priorities and global environmental objectives overlap… • …and where communities are vulnerable to climate change including variability… • The CBA will operate where GEB and adaptation priorities overlap with community priorities Climate Change Adaptation Priorities CBA GEB
CBA Projects must address climate change risks to ecosystems/communities • What are the current pressures on the ecosystem? • What are the climate change threats to the ecosystem? • Baseline Pressures • Landlessness, insecure tenure • Soil degradation • Inequitable access to water resources • Cyclical drought • Cyclones • Landslides • Lack of early warning systems • Climate Change Pressures • Increasing temperature (impacts on crop phenology, water stress) • Increasing erosion (drought/flood) • Reduced water quality (drought/flood) • Changing seasonal water distribution • Salinization • Intensifying cyclones • Severe flood/drought • Novel disasters
Tracking Results from CBA Projects UNDP-GEF Adaptation Indicators • Community perceptions of vulnerability and adaptation to climate change Tracking Qualitative: The VRA Quantitative: the SGP IAS • Quantitative indicators on global environmental benefits realized through community projects
The Vulnerability Reduction Assessment • The VRA is a question-based approach with the following aims: • To make M&E responsive to community priorities • To make M&E capture community ideas and local knowledge • To capture qualitative information in a manner that records progress and can serve as a planning tool for self-monitoring and the capture of community priorities • To generate qualitative information • To guide the evolution of community-based adaptation practice • To generate case studies highlighting CBA projects
The Impact Assessment System • The IAS measures Global Environmental Benefits from community projects • Each project will deliver results within this indicator framework, AND ensure that results are resilient in the face of climate change • Examples from biodiversity and land degradation focal areas:
SGP Jamaica Focus • Sectors for focus based on National Adaptation priorities: • Coastal Sector:Threats of increased erosion, higher storm surges, coral bleaching, loss of ecosystems • Water Resources: Saline intrusion into aquifers, increased droughts/floods • Agriculture: Adverse effects on crop yields due to rainfall variations, new disease & pests (increased temps.), increased losses due to more intense severe weather events.
Baseline-Additionality Reasoning • A number of non-climate, unsustainable practices will compound the impacts of Climate Change: • Deforestation of mangroves , sand mining, Near shore construction • Unsustainable practices: overuse of insecticides, pesticides, fertilizers, slash and burn agriculture, adverse effects of mining • Lack of conservation, over-extraction of ground water • CBA projects must address both these baseline impacts (securing global benefits in BD, LD) and then make the benefits resilient to climate change. Cash co-financing to fund baseline issues, CBA funding to finance climate change stresses.
Local Priorities and Geographic Focus • Projects likely to be sited in areas where global environmental benefits can be secured and are also vulnerable to climate change. Commencement with south coast-Portland Bight • Coastal communities, farming areas, biodiversity hotspots to be targeted. Suitably qualified NGOs/CBOs needed for implementation. • Areas where co-financing opportunities can be secured, also to affect location of project sites
Potential Project Typologies • Projects to vary depending on GEF Focal area and targeted adaptation options: • Protection of threatened coastal species-Mangrove reforestation, in context of increased erosion and higher temps. • Introduction of saline tolerant and drought resistant plant/crop species • Improved land Management in context of increased severe weather events-Conserve Biodiversity habitats