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Psychology of addiction (Components and definition )

Psychology of addiction (Components and definition )

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Psychology of addiction (Components and definition )

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  1. Psychology of addiction(Components and definition )

  2. Addiction Are addicts born or made? Who is most likely to become addicted? When you hear the word ‘addiction’, what pops into your head? What type of activities do you associate with addiction?

  3. Addiction in the press. • Our Addiction to Tiger Woods' “Sex Addiction • Amy in rehab for heroin • Corey Haims death underlines dangers of prescription drugs

  4. L/objectives: • All Identify models of prevention of addictive behaviour. (Grade E) • Mostdescribe & explain models of addictive behaviour. (Grade C/D) • SomeCritically compare the explanations of addictive behaviour. (Grade B+) All must include theories of reasoned action & planned behaviour.

  5. Famous Addicts • Courtney Love • Charlie Sheen • Britney Spears • Lindsay Lohan • Whitney Houston • Samuel L Jackson • Demi Moore • Mike Tyson • Amy Winehouse

  6. Activity 1….over to you. • Devise your own definition of addiction. • Pair yourself with another student & share your defintion,discussing the problems with defining it. Post-Discussion: • Was it easy? • What boundaries were you working within? • Do your definitions cover all addictions? If not why?

  7. Your answers will depend upon….. • Do you believe addiction is inherent or learned? • In reality you could argue the case for both or sit on the fence (we like the view here!) Nature or Nurture. A good time to consider this angle!

  8. Definition of addiction. • “Addiction is the compulsive uncontrolled use of habit forming drugs” (Webster’s New International Dictionary) “Addiction is a state of periodic or chronic intoxication produced by repeated consumption of drug, natural or synthetic” (World Health Organisation) Still not convinced watch this clip!!

  9. Definition of addiction cont…. • There is a growing feeling that the definitions need to encompass addictions that do not necessarily require the user to ingest a substance Can you think of some…to start you off I have one: Gambling. Your turn!!!!

  10. Marlatt et al (1998) suggests: • "Addictive behaviour is a repetitive habit pattern that increases the risk of disease and/or associated personal and social problems....often experienced subjectively as 'loss of control'....these habit patterns are typically characterized by immediate gratification (short term reward), often coupled with delayed, deleterious effects (long term costs)....attempts to change an addictive behaviour (via treatment or by self-initiation) are typically marked by high relapse rates" (Marlatt, Baer, Donovan & Kivlahan, 1988)

  11. So what are the components of addiction? • There are elements that sum up in the clinical sense a diagnostic criteria for addiction. You have to ensure there is a distinction between very enthusiastic vs. addicted. ‘I really want chocolate...I need it oh my god I cant cope without it’. ‘I really want chocolate...but I can live without.’ This takes away from life This adds to life.

  12. Components of addiction. • Salience • Mood modification • Tolerance • Withdrawal • Conflict • Relapse

  13. Salience -An extract from Tony. • If I wasn't actually gambling I was spending the rest of my time working out clever little schemes to obtain money to feed my habit. These two activities literally took up all my time“ • This indicates total preoccupation. Reverse salience is when the addictive behaviour becomes the most important thing in the persons life.

  14. Mood modification. • What a rush • I was buzzing • It makes me feel relaxed • Addicts bring about mood changes. Relaxation, escapism are some of the words used to describe the feeling from engaging in the addictive behaviour.

  15. Tolerance-e.g.. heroin, The need to increase a fix to get the high they used to get. • That feels great = • That’s not enough anymore = • That feels better = + After a while Now I need X2 to feel Good.

  16. Withdrawl Symptoms • Can include shakes, irritability, moodiness & nausea. • These are not uncommon when use of a particular stimulant(not necessarily ingested-could be refraining from a said behaviour) • It is believed they are a result of chemical changes……….but what if you have not ingested anything and get these side effects? • Could it be the refraining from the behaviour itself causing the symptoms?

  17. Conflict • Addicts often have a great deal of conflict with others around them, causing misery. • The conflict is sometimes within themselves too. • Continuing to use the said behaviour relieves the conflict, it is used as a sort of coping strategy.

  18. Relapse-repeating earlier patterns. • Classic examples = smokers, they give up for a said amount of time then they relapse • Griffiths (2002) suggested relapses are common in all addictions, including behavioural addictions such as gambling.

  19. Overeating video gaming love using the internet exercise Choose one of these titles. How well does it apply to the components of addictive behaviour (give examples) What difficulties can you identify. Task 2: Over to you again..

  20. Models of addictive behaviour. • The disease model- Addiction comes from a disorder of the body. • The genetic model-Genetic predisposition towards addictive behaviour. • The experiential model- Behaviours are temporary & dependent on situation • The moral model – Lack of character, result of a weak individual.