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Standard Systems Engineering in the Business Environment

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  1. Standard Systems Engineering in the Business Environment Stuart Arnold QinetiQ Fort Halstead Sevenoaks Kent TN14 7BP +44 1959 514961 +44 7770 834909 sarnold@qinetiq.com

  2. A Thought…

  3. Standard • Definition 1……….. • Definition 2……….. • ………..

  4. Standard • ……….. • ……….. • ……….. • A device or emblem used as a rallying point in times of conflict or battle

  5. A Changing View of Systems Engineering

  6. In the early 90’s new views of systems engineering were emerging- driven largely by the business environment and international trade A reassessment of Systems Engineering was occurring exactly what it is, why we do it, how we do it who does it when do we do it ….. ……and can we all agree on it ?

  7. Systems Engineering Systems Engineering - Everyone has their own model Product System Service

  8. Increasing business challenge in systems • Additional complexity in systems • multiple technologies • multiple contributing enterprises Coordinated cooperation • More capability + less budget • Need for international customers • Need for international supplier collaborations International trade

  9. The changing systems engineering paradigm • De-emphasis of systems engineers in development making all the system decisions - we all do systems engineering. • Life cycle thinking - don’t throw problems and costs over the wall. • Simplistic sequence gives way to more realistic life cycle representations - linearity maps into hierarchy • Enterprises, projects and technologies influence a system’s architecture. • Life cycle management - synonymous with risk management. • Cooperation between contributors - softening the traditional boundaries of multiple trading enterprises.

  10. Systems Engineering – A Key Component of the Organization’s Business Management System • ISO (trade and commerce) and IEC (technical integrity and safety) recognised that a shift in the definition of business processes was occuring – setting systems engineering in terms of both technical and management actions. • Organisations needed a common, internationally-endorsed approach to their management of system complexity. • ISO and IEC jointly decided to act as the forum for the international definition and codification of systems engineering. • In the foreseeable future, the approaches defined in this International Standard are expected to be an aspect of standard business practice.

  11. Systems Engineering – A Key Component of the Organization’s Business Management System ISO/IEC International Standard to: • Codify a widely accepted model for international cooperative action • Designate common concepts for clarity of international communication • Establish common understanding to underpin agreement and consent • Permit actions and responsibilities to be cited in formal or informal acquirer/supplier transactions • Support the determination of organisational capability • Contribute to a framework for developing individual competence

  12. Process Descriptions of Systems Engineering

  13. Systems Engineering Systems Engineering - Everyone has their own model Product System Service

  14. People (in organizations) act on systems by performing processes throughout the life cycle.Process is the most effective basis for a common model Product Service Process System

  15. 1994 Early codification of systems engineering EIA IS 632 DoD solutions halted, US favour civil standards • Emphasis of systems engineers in development making all the system decisions. • Simplistic sequence describes system lifetime • Limited life cycle thinking threw problems and costs ‘over the wall’ • Defence/aerospace view • Big acquirer/big supplier perspective • US culture view 1994 Mil-Std- 499B 1974 Mil-Std- 499A 1969 Mil-std- 499 1994 IEEE P1220

  16. A Brief History of Systems Engineering Process Standards 1997 DERA Systems Engineering Reference Model Systems Engineering 1994 EIA/IS 632 ISO 15288 1994 Process for Engineering a System Mil-Std- 499B 1994 1974 IEEE P1220 Mil-Std- 499A Standard for Application and Management of the Systems Engineering Process Systems Engineering System Life Cycle Processes 1969 Mil-std- 499 DoD solutions halted, US favour civil standards 1995 ISO 12207 1993 ESA PS-05 Software Engineering Standard Software Engineering Life Cycle Management Software Life Cycle Processes

  17. A Brief History of Systems Engineering Process Standards 1997 DERA Systems Engineering Reference Model Systems Engineering 1999 2002 1994 EIA 632 EIA/IS 632 ISO 15288 1994 Process for Engineering a System Mil-Std- 499B 1994 1974 IEEE P1220 Mil-Std- 499A Standard for Application and Management of the Systems Engineering Process Systems Engineering System Life Cycle Processes 1969 Mil-std- 499 1999 DoD solutions halted, US favour civil standards IEEE 1220 1995 2001 ISO 12207 ISO 12207 Amd 1 1993 ESA PS-05 Software Engineering Standard Software Engineering Life Cycle Management Software Life Cycle Processes Life Cycle Management Software Life Cycle Processes

  18. A Brief History of Systems Engineering Process Standards 1996 200X DERA Systems Engineering Reference Model EIA 632 Systems Engineering 1999 2002 1994 EIA 632 EIA/IS 632 ISO/IEC 15288 1994 Process for Engineering a System Mil-Std- 499B 1994 1974 IEEE P1220 Mil-Std- 499A Standard for Application and Management of the Systems Engineering Process Systems Engineering System Life Cycle Processes 1969 Mil-std- 499 1999 DoD solutions halted, US favour civil standards IEEE 1220 IEEE 1220 1995 2001 200X ISO/IEC 12207 ISO/IEC 12207 Amd 1 ISO/IEC 12207 1993 ESA PS-05 Software Engineering Standard Software Engineering Life Cycle Management Software Life Cycle Processes Life Cycle Management Software Life Cycle Processes

  19. A Challenging Journey

  20. Australia Brazil Canada China Czech Republic Denmark France Germany Israel Italy Japan Korea Norway Russia Sweden Spain UK USA Active ISO/IEC 15288 participants Up to 40 around the tableFinal cost $9.5M • INCOSE

  21. ISO/IEC 15288 Milestones • Jun ‘94: ISO Study Group on software-system relationship • Mar ‘95: USA New Work Item proposal • Apr ‘96: ISO/IEC JTC1 approval of the project • May ‘96: Work started • July ‘99: CD 1(766 comments) • Feb ‘00: CD 2 (1450 comments) • Nov ‘00: CD 2 rev (300 comments) • May ‘01: CD 3 (680 comments) • Nov ’01: FCD (274 Comments) • Jan ’02: FDIS • June ’02: Unanimous ratification of International Standard • Nov ’02: Publication

  22. Keep in mind • ISO/IEC 15288 only a model, like any model it has problems of representing the complexity of reality and has limits to its range of validity. • It is a top-level model that will need to be supported by detail in other standards. • Reviewers and users all want to see themselves in the model ISO/IEC 15288 • Most people come to 15288 preconditioned by models in other systems engineering standards. • It is not intended to be a idealized model; it has to be used in practice. • ISO/IEC 15288 is therefore a workable compromise.

  23. Also keep in mind • ISO/IEC 15288 is principally implemented using language • linear sequence of words - trying to capture an iterative, recursive, dynamic reality • most of the good words have been used in other models with different meaning - misconceptions • unambiguous translation into French, Russian and also Spanish, Japanese, Swedish, Portuguese etc. introduces constraints - • Graphical/schematic representations may be rich but they imply notations and conventions which have to be interpreted. • In varying detail, the users of ISO/IEC 15288 are all functions in the organisation – one story, many actors, many discipline-specific terms.

  24. And a few more challenges? • It was a requirement that it can be cited in contract. • Many concepts were muddled in preceding standards (Verification and Validation, Process and Life Cycle Stage, Products and Services, Systems and Components, Iteration and Recursion) • The decision to write a Guide (ISO Technical Report) was made half way through. • It was a requirement that it could be used for maturity assessment. • Size matters!

  25. Were we successful? • Published Nov 2002 • Links to implementation technology standards • Links to assessment standards From a business perspective it…..

  26. Business Outcomes of Complying with ISO/IEC 15288 • Provides a tailorable, multi-domain, system-driven profile of business processes. • Can be applied bi-laterally, contributes to consistency across a trading boundary; applied multi-laterally, contributes to supply chains. • Lets customer satisfaction drive technology opportunities and the supplier chain. • Influences inter-and intra-organisational accountability and structure. • Defines system-oriented managerial outcomes that are directed toward customer satisfaction.            • Builds the essential relationship between product creation and the provision and management of services.          • Assists development of a service (capability)-driven culture

  27. Application in the Defence Industry Acquisition Management System ISO/IEC 15288 is the basis of UK MOD’s Acquisition Policy and Process Framework

  28. Application in the Rail Industry • From the EPT Final Report “During the development phase [of ERTMS] a robust System Engineering Process and Quality Management System will be required. The scope of this work would include the production and approval of necessary processes, procedures and standards based on ISO/IEC 15288 and CENELEC EN 50126, and the achievement of ISO 9000 certification”. • From the EPT Year 1 Progress Report 2003 “…the EPT has established a Quality Management System. It is based on IEC 15288 but has been focused on the specific needs of the programme. It concentrates on staff competencies, configuration management, change control, document review and requirement management, and is underpinned by a programme of internal audits…”.

  29. Establishing the Business Context

  30. Mind The Gap Business Managers Project Managers Specialist Engineers Implementation Technology Processes Project Processes Enterprise Processes

  31. Same Gap – Multiple Views Business Managers Project Managers Specialist Engineers Project View of Systems Implementation Discipline View of Systems Described in Project Management Practices /Body of Knowledge Described in Discipline Standards/Practices e.g. Software Practices, Human Centred Practices Implementation Technology Processes Enterprise Processes Project Processes

  32. Business Managers Project Managers Systems Engineers Specialist Engineers A Common, Profiled View Set in a Management Context System Technical Processes Implementation Technology Processes Enterprise Processes Project Processes

  33. Context for Systems Engineering SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT ENTERPRISE ENVIRONMENT PROJECT ENVIRONMENT SYSTEMS ENGINEERING DOMAIN IMPLEMENTATION TECHNOLOGY ENVIRONMENT

  34. Organization enterprise management ENTERPRISE PROCESSES project management PROJECT PROCESSES technical management TECHNICAL PROCESSES Organisational Structure enterprise that part of an organization with responsibility to acquire and to supply products and/or services according to agreements NOTE An organization may be involved in several enterprises and an enterprise may involve one or more organizations.

  35. Organisational trading enterprise management enterprise management ENTERPRISE PROCESSES ENTERPRISE PROCESSES project management project management PROJECT PROCESSES PROJECT PROCESSES technical management technical management TECHNICAL PROCESSES TECHNICAL PROCESSES Organization A Organization C AGREEMENT PROCESSES agreement the mutual acknowledgement of terms and conditions under which a working relationship is conducted acquirer the stakeholder that acquires or procures a product or service from a supplier NOTE Other terms commonly used for an acquirer are buyer, customer, purchaser. The acquirer may at the same time be the owner, user or operating organization. supplier an organization or an individual that enters into an agreement with the acquirer for the supply of a product or service

  36. enterprise management enterprise management enterprise management ENTERPRISE PROCESSES ENTERPRISE PROCESSES ENTERPRISE PROCESSES project management project management project management PROJECT PROCESSES PROJECT PROCESSES PROJECT PROCESSES technical management technical management technical management TECHNICAL PROCESSES TECHNICAL PROCESSES TECHNICAL PROCESSES Organization A Organization C AGREEMENT PROCESSES AGREEMENT PROCESSES Organisational trading Acquirer/supplier chains Organization B

  37. Structure, Architecture, Hierarchy and Recursion

  38. Defining a System system a combination of interacting elements organized to achieve one or more stated purposes NOTE 1 A system may be considered as a product or as the services it provides. NOTE 2 In practice, the interpretation of its meaning is frequently clarified by the use of an associative noun, e.g. aircraft system. Alternatively the word system may be substituted simply by a context dependent synonym, e.g. aircraft, though this may then obscure a system principles perspective. Aircraft System

  39. System A system iscompletely composed of a set of interacting System element System element System element systemelements System Composition system a combination of interacting elements organized to achieve one or more stated purposes NOTE 1 A system may be considered as a product or as the services it provides. NOTE 2 In practice, the interpretation of its meaning is frequently clarified by the use of an associative noun, e.g. aircraft system. Alternatively the word system may be substituted simply by a context dependent synonym, e.g. aircraft, though this may then obscure a system principles perspective.

  40. Life support Airframe system system Navigation system Propulsion system Flight control system Global positioning receiver system Display system Recursion gives us Hierarchy Aircraft System Air Crew Navigation System

  41. Air traffic control system Fuel distribution system Airport system Life support Airframe system system Navigation system Propulsion system Flight control system Global positioning receiver system Display system Recursion gives us Hierarchy Ground Transportation System Air Transport System Ticketing system Aircraft System Air Crew Navigation System Maritime Transport System

  42. Abstract - relative Real world - absolute Abstract - absolute SYSTEM -OF-INTEREST PRODUCT 1:N 1:N SYSTEM SYSTEM ASSEMBLY 1:N SYSTEM 1:NX 1:NX SYSTEM 1:N SUBASSEMBLY SYSTEM 1:N 1:N 1:N SYSTEM ELEMENT PART SYSTEM Establishing One’s Bearings in Recursion

  43. Architecture Assists the Management of Complexity System- of-interest System element System element System element System element system-of-interest the system whose life cycle is under consideration in the context of this International Standard

  44. Architecture Assists the Management of Complexity System- of-interest System element System element System element System element System System System element System element System element System element System element System element system element a member of a set of elements that constitutes a system NOTE A system element is a discrete part of a system that can be implemented to fulfil specified requirements

  45. Architecture Assists the Management of Complexity System- of-interest System element System element System element System element System System System element System element System element System element System element System element System System System System element System element System element System element System element System element System element

  46. Architecture Assists the Management of Complexity System- of-interest System element System element System element System element System System System element System element System element System element System element System element System System System System element System element System element System element System element System System element System element System System element System element System element System element System element

  47. Project Focus

  48. ISO/IEC 15288’s Project Centred View project an endeavour with defined start and finish dates undertaken to create a product or service in accordance with specified resources and requirements NOTE 1 Adapted from ISO 9000: 2000 and the PMBOK Guide(2000). NOTE 2 A project may be viewed as a unique process comprising co-ordinated and controlled activities and may be composed of activities from the Project Processes and Technical Processes defined in this International Standard.. System-of -interest Project Is responsible for 1:many Supply System 1:many System 1:many Acquisition Is responsible for (Subordinate) Project System element

  49. Systems Engineering is Conducted in Projects Enterprise Processes Technical Processes Project Processes Project Planning Process Project Assessment Process Project Control Process Decision - making Process Risk Management Process Configuration Agreement Processes Management Process Information Management Process