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Youth Gang Violence – A Threat To The Environment Cindy Davis, Ph. D. student Walden University PUBH-8165-1 Instructo PowerPoint Presentation
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Youth Gang Violence – A Threat To The Environment Cindy Davis, Ph. D. student Walden University PUBH-8165-1 Instructo

Youth Gang Violence – A Threat To The Environment Cindy Davis, Ph. D. student Walden University PUBH-8165-1 Instructo

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Youth Gang Violence – A Threat To The Environment Cindy Davis, Ph. D. student Walden University PUBH-8165-1 Instructo

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  1. Youth Gang Violence – A Threat To The Environment Cindy Davis, Ph. D. student Walden UniversityPUBH-8165-1Instructor: Dr. Robert MarinoSpring, 2011

  2. Expected Learning Outcomes After this presentation, each participant: • Will be able to define “youth gang” • Will be able to identify warning signs • Will be able to make the connection between safety and health • Will be able to implement the “I Care” strategies

  3. Youth Gang - Defined • According to the National Criminal Justice Reference Service (NCJRS, 2000), a youth gang: “has more than two members”, falls within a “limited age range (12-24)”, “share a sense of identity”, is associated with specific turf, and is “involved in criminal activity.” http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/182210.pdf

  4. Is Youth Violence a Public Health Concern? • Gang violence is recognized as a public health issue according to the U. S. Department of Health and Human Services (2001). Why? There has been a remarkable impact of violence on the vitality and liveliness of our youth. http://odphp.osophs.dhhs.gov/pubs/prevrpt/01spring/Spring2001PR.htm

  5. Where Are Youth Gangs Found? Weisheit & Wells (2005) note that youth gangs “…are found in the poorest neighborhoods of America’s large cities” (p. 3). http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/jr000251b.pdf

  6. Environmental Influence • DuRant et al., (1994) concur that “…not all adolescents who live in communities with high levels of poverty and unemployment and who are exposed to or are victims of violence engage in violent behavior” (p. 612). DuRant, R., Cadenhead, C., Pendergrast, R., Slavens, G., & Linder, C. W., (1994). Factors associated with the use of violence among urban black adolescents. American Journal of Public Health 84 (4). 612-617. Retrieved from http://ajph.aphapublications.org/cgi/reprint/84/4/612

  7. The Environmental Interruption Youth gangs are noted for contributing to the not-so-safe environment via: • drug activity • an increase in violence • crime • increased homicide • graffiti

  8. The Price Tag on Violence • Surgeon General report $425 billion in direct and indirect costs each year http://odphp.ocophs.dhhs.gov/pubs/prevrpt/01spring/Spring2001PR.htm

  9. How Does Safety = Health? • “During the last decade, violence has received increasing attention as a major public health issue…” • “Of particular concern is the degree to which violence affects the lives of youth…” Ellickson & McGuigan (2000) Ellickson, P. & McGuigan, K. (2000). Early predictors of adolescent violence. Retrieved from http://ajph.aphapublications.org/cgi/reprint/90/4/566

  10. The Facts • Ellickson & McGuigan (2000) study notes: Between 1985 and 1990, arrests for murder, manslaughter, and aggravated assault rose by 60% for children younger than 18 years. Ellickson, P. & McGuigan, K. (2000). Early predictors of adolescent violence. Retrieved from http://ajph.aphapublications.org/cgi/reprint/90/4/566

  11. Warning Signs of Gang Activity • Withdrawing from family • Staying out late without reason • Carrying a weapon • Possession of unexplained cash or goods, such as clothing or jewelry http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/files/ric/Publications/GangsCard_FBI.pdf

  12. The Environmental Response “It takes a village…” ~Traditional African Proverb Restoring the health of the community through collaboration is vital. Commonly, communities, police, parents, and faith based organizations are involved in restoration of the community.

  13. The Environmental Response, cont’d. • According to The U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, “the public health focus on violence has brought new players…” • Psychologists • Psychiatrists • Sociologists • Neuroscientists http://odphp.ocophs.dhhs.gov/pubs/prevrpt/01spring/Spring2001PR.htm

  14. Tips for Prevention • Parents can spend quality time with their children • Be a positive role model • Teach children how to cope with peer pressure http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/files/ric/Publications/GangsCard_FBI.pdf

  15. A Rescue Effort • Jail is not the answer… • Abandonment is not the answer… • Neglect is not the answer… NO! The answer is: • Prevention, Prevention, Prevention

  16. Health Restored • Because children are our future, prevention of youth violence at all levels leads us back to a healthy environment.

  17. I-CARE Strategies • I - Individualize • C – Cultivate positive self-esteem • A – Address feelings • R – Reiterate values • E – Embrace cultural differences

  18. Conclusion “The reality is that changes are coming. ... They must come. You must share in bringing them.” - John Hersey http://www.famousquotesandauthors.com/authors/john_hersey_quotes.html

  19. References • Department of Health and Human Services (2001). Prevention Report: Focus. Retrieved from http://odphp.osophs.dhhs.gov/pubs/prevrpt/01spring/Spring2001PR.htm • DuRant, R., Cadenhead, C., Pendergrast, R., Slavens, G., & Linder, C. W., (1994). Factors associated with the use of violence among urban black adolescents. American Journal of Public Health 84 (4). 612-617. Retrieved from http://ajph.aphapublications.org/cgi/reprint/84/4/612 • Ellickson, P. & McGuigan, K. (2000). Early predictors of adolescent violence. Retrieved from http://ajph.aphapublications.org/cgi/reprint/90/4/566

  20. References, cont’d. • Hersey, J. (n.d.). Quote. Retrieved from http://www.famousquotesandauthors.com/authors/john_hersey_quotes.html • National Criminal Justice Reference Service (2011). Retrieved from http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/182210.pdf • National Criminal Justice Reference Service (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/files/ric/Publications/GangsCard_FBI.pdf • Weisheit, R., & Wells, L., (2005). Youth gangs in rural America. Retrieved from http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/jr000251b.pdf

  21. Further Reading and Information • Wiesheit, Ralph A. & Wells, L. Edward (2004). Youth gangs in rural America 251, 1-6. Retrieved from http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/jr000251b.pdf • www.cops.usdoj.gov • www.ojjdp.ncjrs.org

  22. Further Reading, cont’d. • Facts about youth violence www.cdc.gov/ncipc/factsheets/yvfacts.htm • For assisting young people with effective conflict resolution ability: www.safeyouth.org/scripts/teens/conflict.asp

  23. Further Reading, cont’d. • CeaseFire, a national public health strategy proven to make communities safer, Retrieved from http://www.ceasefirechicago.org/