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In-text citations

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  1. In-text citations • In-text citations – used to put important ________ information in _______________________ after a paraphrase or quote • NOTE: Should NOT have more than 1/3 of your paper cited

  2. Why Use In-Text Citations? • Used within your research paper to refer readers to the source in the Works Cited • In case the reader wants to check it out! • Gives credit where credit is due • *No in-text citation = _______________________

  3. In-Text Citations: Use when… • ______________ an original idea from a source • ________________ that is NOT “common knowledge” • ________________ another person’s idea • For example, Literary criticism! • ________________

  4. In-Text Citations: MLA • For MLA style, in-text citations should include: • 1. ____________________ _____________ _____________ • 2. ________________ ____________________ • Citation comes BEFORE the closing punctuation mark. Example, Quotation from GALE eBook: “He received honorary degrees from Harvard, Yale, and Oxford universities” (Benson 583). Example, Paraphrase: Benjamin Franklin was educated at Harvard, Oxford, and Yale universities (Benson 583).

  5. Set-Up Line • Set-up Line – a “signal phrase” that uses the ___________________ ___________ to “set up” the piece of information • If you use a set-up line, you do NOT need to put the author’s name in parentheses. Example, direct quotation: As Sonia Benson explains, “In 1787, Franklin attended the Constitutional Convention, during which members wrote the U.S. Constitution” (583). Example, paraphrase: Sonia Benson tells us that Benjamin Franklin played a part in creating the U.S. Constitution in 1787 (583).


  6. In-Text Citations: No Page Numbers • If you’re using an internet source that has no page numbers, such as an article, then only include the ____________________ ___________ _____________ in the citation. Example from a New Yorker article found online: “Even within Apple, Jobs was known for taking credit for others’ ideas” (Gladwell).

  7. In-Text Citations: Author Unknown • When the author’s name is not given, the first thing in parentheses should be the ______________ word in your entry for the source in your Works Cited page. • Usually the first word in the title • Not “the” • In quotes

  8. Author Unknown: Example Example of a Paraphrase from Biography.com: Citation: "Barack Hussein Obama, Jr.." 2014. The Biography.comwebsite. May 01 2014. Paraphrase: Barack was primarily raised by his mother because his father was studying in Massachusetts before his parents split apart (“Barack”).

  9. Activity: Worksheet • Complete the worksheet, “Practice with In-Text Citations,” by filling in the blanks with the required citation information. Follow the directions on the worksheet. • You may work with partners if you’d like, but I will collect a worksheet from every student.

  10. For further information: **Purdue Owl: MLA Formatting and Style Guide (edited 2014) (https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/02/ http://bcs.bedfordstmartins.com/resdoc5e/res5e_ch08_s1-0001.html hackerandbooks.comResearch and Documentation Online:5th edition http://bcs.bedfordstmartins.com/resdoc5e/res5e_ch08_s1-0001.html Bedford Writing Center: http://www.sinclair.edu/centers/wc/pub/documents/mlaintxt.pdf Portland State University Writing Center http://www.writingcenter.pdx.edu/resources/library.php?step09_detail_3.html