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Cosmic Rays under the Knee

Cosmic Rays under the Knee. Piergiorgio Picozza INFN & University of Rome “ Tor Vergata” 21st European Cosmic Ray Symposium Košice, Slovakia 9 - 12 September 2008. High Z. [ENTICE, ECCO]. Isotopic composition [ACE ] Solar Modulation. Antimatter Dark Matter. [BESS, PAMELA, AMS].

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Cosmic Rays under the Knee

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  1. Cosmic Rays under the Knee Piergiorgio Picozza INFN & University of Rome “ Tor Vergata” 21st European Cosmic Ray Symposium Košice, Slovakia9 - 12 September 2008

  2. High Z [ENTICE, ECCO] Isotopic composition[ACE] Solar Modulation Antimatter Dark Matter [BESS, PAMELA, AMS] Elemental Composition [CREAM, ATIC, TRACER, NUCLEON, CALET, ACCESS?, INCA?, Extreme Energy CR [AUGER, EUSO, TUS/KLYPVE, OWL??]

  3. An Overview • Elemental Composition • Antimatter and Dark Matter research • Solar modulation


  5. What Kind of Data? • C.R. energy spectra • C.R. relative abundances • Secondary/primary C.R. fluxes ratios

  6. proton ATIC 1-2 CREAM 1

  7. ATIC 1-2 CREAM 1 He

  8. ATIC 2

  9. ATIC 2 Average Mass

  10. astro-ph/0612377

  11. CREAM 1-2

  12. Energy Spectra TRACER 2003 Astrophysical Journal 678, 262 (2008)

  13. Spectral Indices vs Charge TRACER 2003 Fit > 20 GeV / amu Γ = 2.65 ± 0.05 No evidence for any Z dependence in the spectral indices. Points to common origin for all species.

  14. Comparison with Air-showers TRACER 2003 TRACER – single element (O, Fe)Airshowers : CNO group, Fe Group

  15. Some comparisons Wefel credit

  16. CREAM 2

  17. TIGER Trans-Iron Galactic Element Recorder

  18. Antiproton flux B/C Ratio AstrophysicB/C constraints Nuclear cross sections!! Secondaries / primaries i.e. Boron/ Carbon to constrain propagation parameters D. Maurin, F. Donato R. Taillet and P.Salati ApJ, 555, 585, 2001 [astro-ph/0101231] F. Donato et.al, ApJ, 563, 172, 2001 [astro-ph/0103150]

  19. Diffusion Halo Model

  20. CREAM astro-ph/0808.1718 δ = 0.33 top 0.6 med. 0.7 bot.

  21. ATIC

  22. B/C selected experiments

  23. CREAM 2 astro-ph/0808.1718 ATIC

  24. Elemental Composition • Direct measurements well determine C.R. elemental composition under the knee. • As a result important hints to acceleration processes and propagation of cosmic rays through the ISM are obtained. • New data on secondary to primary (B/C) ratio in cosmic rays fluxes are providing unique tools to characterize the diffusion properties of ISM.

  25. PAMELA AMS in Space AMS Search for the origin of the Universe Search for the existence of anti Universe Accelerators The Big Bang origin of the Universe requires matter and antimatter to be equally abundant at the very hot beginning Search for the existence of Antimatter in the Universe

  26. 4% 23% 73%

  27. Signal (supersymmetry)… (GLAST AMS-02)‏ … and background

  28. Antimatter and Dark Matter Research • Wizard Collaboration • - MASS – 1,2 (89,91) -TrampSI (93) • CAPRICE (94, 97, 98) • BESS (93, 95, 97, 98, 2000) • IMAX (1992) • Heat (94, 95, 2000) • BESS LDF (2004) • ATIC (2001, 2003, 2005) • PPB-BETS (2004) • AMS-01 (98)

  29. Antimatter “We must regard it rather an accident that the Earth and presumably the whole Solar System contains a preponderance of negative electrons and positive protons. It is quite possible that for some of the stars it is the other way about” P. Dirac, Nobel lecture (1933)‏

  30. P Secondary production (upper and lower limits)‏ Simon et al. ApJ 499 (1998) 250. Secondary production Bergström et al. ApJ 526 (1999) 215 from χχ annihilation (Primary production m(c) = 964 GeV) Ullio : astro-ph/9904086

  31. astro-ph/0805.1754

  32. Antiproton-Proton Ratio

  33. Positron - Electron ratio

  34. Positrons with HEAT

  35. PAMELAPayload for Antimatter Matter Exploration and Light NucleiAstrophysicsLaunch15/06/0616 Gigabytes trasmitted daily to GroundNTsOMZ Moscow

  36. PAMELA

  37. Positron/electron ratio

  38. PPB-BETS[astro-ph/0809.0760] 01/2004 Antartica

  39. The Next Future

  40. NUCLEON Goal of The Project Direct cosmic ray (CR) measurements in wide energy and charge range in the near-Earth space

  41. Estimate Eprimary byS= i2 NiPseudorapidities: i = - ln tg (i/2)  - Converter  e+e- Kinematics Lightweight Energy Method The idea is to measure the spatial density of secondary particles with a silicon tracker and use kinematics (pseudorapidities of secondary products) to infer the Lorentz factor of the primary particle. C-target <S> ~ E0.8 Fe Protons

  42. NUCLEON • The charge measuring system: 4 silicon detectors layers. • Tracker and energy system: a carbon block as a target, 6 identical layers of micro-strip silicon detectors, 2 identical tungsten layers as a gamma-converter.

  43. TRD Tracker MAGNET Vacuum Case He Vessel RICH AMS-02 on ISS In Orbit 2010

  44. The Completed AMS Detector on ISS Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) Time of Flight Detector (TOF) Magnet Silicon Tracker Ring Image Cerenkov Counter (RICH) Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL) Size: 3m x 3m x 3m Weight: 7 tons

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