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A Light for Science

A Light for Science

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A Light for Science

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  1. A Light for Science A. WAGNER 3 April 2009 W.G. Stirling

  2. Science with Photons:lightsources and illustrative examplesW.G. Stirling, ESRF/CEA-G • Why build light sources? • Light sources around the world • Some science • DESY and ESRF A. WAGNER 3 April 2009 W.G. Stirling

  3. Why build light sources? Because they are VERY useful! A. WAGNER 3 April 2009 W.G. Stirling

  4. C A B cluster Synchrotron Light Science Engineering Medicine Biology/life sciences Advanced (nano)materials, palaeontology, cultural heritage … Materials Planetary sciences Physics Chemistry Fe hcp: 22 and 112 GPa A. WAGNER 3 April 2009 W.G. Stirling

  5. SR Sources Worldwide • Large number (> 50) SR sources worldwide • Storage Ring sources, and now Free Electron Laser (FEL) sources A. WAGNER 3 April 2009 W.G. Stirling

  6. SR Sources Worldwide • New European sources: SLS, SOLEIL, Diamond, Alba, PETRA III … • New sources in Australia, Singapore, Canada, Taiwan, Middle East,… • The Big Rings • ESRF, Grenoble (6 GeV) • APS, Chicago (7 GeV) • SPring-8, Hyogo (8 GeV) • PETRA III, Hamburg (6 GeV) A. WAGNER 3 April 2009 W.G. Stirling

  7. The Big Rings ESRF • European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble • User operation: 1994 • 6 GeV storage ring • 844 m circumference • ~ 45 operating beamlines A. WAGNER 3 April 2009 W.G. Stirling

  8. The Big Rings APS • Advanced Photon Source, Argonne, USA • User operation: 1996 • 7 GeV storage ring • 1104 m circumference • > 60 operating beamlines A. WAGNER 3 April 2009 W.G. Stirling

  9. The Big Rings SPring-8 • Super Photon ring-8, Hyogo, Japan • User operation: 1997 • 8 GeV storage ring • 1436 m circumference • > 60 operating beamlines A. WAGNER 3 April 2009 W.G. Stirling

  10. The Big Rings PETRA III • PETRA III, DESY, Hamburg • User operation: 2009 • 6 GeV storage ring • 2300 m circumference • 14 beamlines planned (30 stations) A. WAGNER 3 April 2009 W.G. Stirling

  11. Increase of X-ray intensity with time • From X-ray tubes  • Parasitic use of SR from particle accelerators (“1st generation”)  • Custom-built SR sources using bending magnet radiation (“2nd generation”)  • Insertion-device-based SR sources (“3rd generation”)  • X-ray FELs (2010 - ?) • Faster than Moore’s Law ? A. WAGNER 3 April 2009 W.G. Stirling

  12. FLASH and XFEL (DESY, Hamburg) Comparisons of XFEL brilliances with current sources • FLASH FEL (DESY) • European XFEL (DESY) • Huge increases in brilliance • Very short pulses • FLASH: ~10 - 50 fsec • XFEL: < 100 fsec • New science; overlaps with both current SR sources and high-power lasers A. WAGNER 3 April 2009 W.G. Stirling

  13. The XFEL (DESY, Hamburg) • Facility length ~ 3.4 km • Tunnel length ~ 2.1km • Tunnel depth ~ 6 – 38 m • User operation: 2015 A. WAGNER 3 April 2009 W.G. Stirling

  14. Some science with photons • Examples from Imaging with X-rays • Of increasing importance in nano-science, nano-materials, nano-technology, nano-bio, … A. WAGNER 3 April 2009 W.G. Stirling

  15. X-ray imaging: the first steps Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen (1845-1923) Nobel Prize for Physics, 1901 The first "röntgenogram" 8 November 1895 A. WAGNER 3 April 2009 W.G. Stirling

  16. Life, a hundred million years ago A. WAGNER 3 April 2009 W.G. Stirling

  17. Insects trapped in (opaque) amber • X-ray imaging → interior of the amber → fossilised insects • Opaque amber so impossible with (visible light) microscopy • Amber (from the Charentes): Cretaceous (~100 million years) • Wasps, flies, ants … (~0.5 – 5 mm) • Université de Rennes, Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle de Paris, ESRF (Lak, Tafforeau et al) A. WAGNER 3 April 2009 W.G. Stirling

  18. Insects trapped in (opaque) amber “… the first time that we can study fossils inside amber.” Lak et al, Microscopy and Microanalysis, to be published A. WAGNER 3 April 2009 W.G. Stirling

  19. A feather in amber • Bird or dinosaur? • Intermediate form – but capable of flight • Perrichot et al, Proc Roy Soc B275, 1197, 2008 A. WAGNER 3 April 2009 W.G. Stirling

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  21. A. WAGNER 3 April 2009 W.G. Stirling

  22. Fossil egg: dinosaur or bird or …? Egg, Thailand;Cretaceous, ~ 100 million years Archaeopteryx Courtesy of P. Tafforeau, V. Fernandez (ESRF), E. Buffetaut (CNRS) A. WAGNER 3 April 2009 W.G. Stirling

  23. Fossil egg: dinosaur or bird or …? Courtesy of P. Tafforeau, V. Fernandez (ESRF), E. Buffetaut (CNRS) A. WAGNER 3 April 2009 W.G. Stirling

  24. Fossil egg: dinosaur or bird or …? Courtesy of P. Tafforeau, V. Fernandez (ESRF), E. Buffetaut (CNRS) A. WAGNER 3 April 2009 W.G. Stirling

  25. Fossil egg: dinosaur or bird or …? Courtesy of P. Tafforeau, V. Fernandez (ESRF), E. Buffetaut (CNRS) A. WAGNER 3 April 2009 W.G. Stirling

  26. A. WAGNER 3 April 2009 W.G. Stirling

  27. A. WAGNER 3 April 2009 W.G. Stirling

  28. Very high resolution imaging – 100nm gold particle Beamstop Focused hard X-ray beam Sample on membrane Diffraction image FreloN camera • Single Au nanoparticle on Si3N4 membrane • Located by fluorescence mapping • TU Dresden, ESRF, DESY • ID13, 15.25 keV • Crossed refractive nanofocusing lenses  focal spot ~ 100 x 100 nm2 • Coherent X-ray Diffraction Imaging (CXDI) Schroer et al, PRL 101, 090801, 2008 A. WAGNER 3 April 2009 W.G. Stirling

  29. Very high resolution imaging – 100nm gold particle • CXDI: object illuminated with coherent beam • Far-field diffraction image – no optics • Reconstructions used hybrid input-output method • Spatial resolution ~ 5 nm from 600 sec exposure • Ultimate resolution possible < 1 nm ? Schroer et al, PRL 101, 090801, 2008 A. WAGNER 3 April 2009 W.G. Stirling

  30. FLASH (DESY, Hamburg) • FLASH soft X-ray FEL • Ultrafast X-ray science • Single-shot dynamic coherent diffraction imaging • 10 fs pulses, 13.5 nm • Nanofabricated (etched) test sample; laser pulse  ablation • Ex of single-shot diffraction pattern • 40ps after laser pulse Barty et al, Nature Photonics 2, 415, 2008 A. WAGNER 3 April 2009 W.G. Stirling

  31. FLASH (DESY, Hamburg) Evolution of sample via diffraction images • a: -5 ps, just before laser pulse • b:10 ps • c: 15 ps • d: 20 ps • e: 40 ps • f: 140 ps a c e b d f Barty et al, Nature Photonics 2, 415, 2008 A. WAGNER 3 April 2009 W.G. Stirling

  32. FLASH (DESY, Hamburg) Evolution of nonofabricated test object • Images reconstructed using iterative phase retrieval techniques • a: SEM image • b: -5ps • c: 10ps (little change) • d: 15ps (begins to disintegrate) • Opening new windows on fast dynamics in condensed matter, biological systems … b d a c Spatial resolution ~ 50 nm, temporal resolution ~ 10 ps Barty et al, Nature Photonics 2, 415, 2008 A. WAGNER 3 April 2009 W.G. Stirling

  33. Collaboration between DESY and ESRF DESY has made many, many contributions to the ESRF: • As Member of ESRF, designated by German Government • As valuable source of scientific and technical advice during preparation, construction, commissioning and operational phases (e.g. DESY-ESRF Directorate meetings) • As “supplier” of: • Directors, scientists, engineers … • Committee members: Council, SAC, AFC, BL reviews, BT reviews … • … … … • Recently, important collaboration on ID06 beamline A. WAGNER 3 April 2009 W.G. Stirling

  34. Collaboration between DESY and ESRF: the ID06 instrumentation development beamline A. WAGNER 3 April 2009 W.G. Stirling

  35. OH EH1 EH2 The ID06 instrumentation development beamline White beam test station Source: CPMU Oxford mono (PETRA III) Cinel mono (ESRF) Microoptics test bench Detector test bench Large Volume Press Pulsed magnetic fields A. WAGNER 3 April 2009 W.G. Stirling

  36. The ID06 instrumentation development beamline • White beam test station: • Diamond higher power attenuators • Calorimeter • Optical table for variable installations Cinel monochromator (ESRF) • Slot for future development • CRL for vertical focusing • Phase plate Oxford monochromator (PETRA III) A. WAGNER 3 April 2009 W.G. Stirling

  37. The ID06 instrumentation development beamline The white-beam test station • Development of high-heatload components • Calorimeter for characterisation of beam • Diamond high power attenuators • Monochromator PETRA III (H.C. Wille): Oxford Danfysik ESRF (C. Detlefs, P. Marion): Cinel • White beam position monitors • Residual gas based: PETRA III (P. Ilinsky) and ESRF (Th. Martin) • Diamond based: PETRA III (M. Degenhardt) and ESRF (Th. Martin) A. WAGNER 3 April 2009 W.G. Stirling

  38. Photon science is alive and well, with new sources and upgrade/renewal programmes at: • DESY (PETRA III, FLASH, XFEL) • ESRF: the Upgrade Programme • APS: renewal project • SPring-8: XFEL, renewal projects • SLAC: LCLS • … … … A. WAGNER 3 April 2009 W.G. Stirling

  39. Thank you, Albrecht, for your many contributions to European, and World, science. Very best wishes from everyone at the ESRF. We very much appreciate your support and collaboration. A. WAGNER 3 April 2009 W.G. Stirling

  40. Many thanks to Paul Tafforeau and Carsten Detlefs for their help in preparing this talk. A. WAGNER 3 April 2009 W.G. Stirling