What You Will Learn in the Unit European History, Eras of Policing, Early American Policing, Texas Rangers, US Marshals, 1st Police Force and 1st Detectives
Word of the Day ~ Person of the Day • Magistrate – a minor judicial officer, as a justice of the peace or the judge of a police court, having jurisdiction to try minor criminal cases and to conduct preliminary examinations of persons charged with serious crimes. • Sir Robert Peel – helped create the Metropolitan Police Act, creating the first large-scale, organized police force. Was also a British Prime Minister.
Kin Policing Families, tribes, clans enforced informal rules and customs All members of the group enforced
From Private Matters to Public Enforcement • Magistrates appointed • Created the 1st paid police force to patrol (called praefectus urbi) • Roman empire fell • Whose job was it to “police?”
Kings Must Find a Way to “Police” Primarily used military to enforce the law Also used “watchmen,” ordinary citizens authorized to look for problems, investigate and arrest This evolved into the Frankpledge system – in the 1100’s (12th Century) families grouped into TENS (remember this from common law). The tens was called a “tithing.” Males were responsible for members of their group. Tithings (or tens) were grouped into parishes (the HUNDREDS that you remember from common law). The head of the Hundred was called a REEVE.
The Shire Reeve – County Sheriff Groups of 100 families were formed into counties. The chief law enforcement in the county was the Shire Reeve. The Shire Reeve reported to the KING. Constables were appointed to assist the sheriff. Magistrates/Justices of the Peace were appointed to decide criminal offenses. The positions were VOLUNTEERS. No regular salaries.
The Bow Street Runners –PAID$$$ 1735 – permission given to pay watchmen from taxes John & Henry Fielding (magistrates) hired constables to patrol, became known as the Bow Street Runners. Performed investigations and known as the 1st detective unit Shift towards paying people to police
Sir Robert Peel – Founder of the first organized police force 1829- Military organization with ranks – emphasis on prevention – uniforms – officers called “bobbies.”
Quid Pro Quo – You Scratch My Back and I will Scratch Yours (Patronage) POLICING COMES TO AMERICA *Got their jobs by being friends with politicians * Had to stay in line to keep their jobs * Corruption * Used more force than English Bobbies English policing did not involve as much politics and officers were not intentionally brutal as part of the job.
The Eras of Policing (1840s-Present) The Political Era – The Reform Era – The Community Era – The New Era
The Political Era (1840-1930) • Organize like military • Focused on serving politicians • Brutal and corrupt • Appointed or hired by politicians • Society was rapidly changing
The Reform Era (1930s – 1970s) • Focus on crime fighting • Eradicating the Mob • Removal of politics • End corruption • Increase level of professionalism of officers • Criminal Justice becomes an academic discipline August Vollmer leads reform effort. With Univ. of California, starts CJ program of study.
The Community Era (1970s-2001) • Identify and serve each community’s needs • Partner with community • Partnerships decrease crime, prevents crime, and helps solve crime Police are more effective when the people they serve and protect work with them.
The New Era (2001 – Present) • Policing shifts focus to securing the country • Fighting terrorism • Partnerships to gather intelligence • Departments focused on surveillance and counter-terrorism created
The Creation of State and Federal Law Enforcement US Marshals – FBI – ATF – DEA and a whole lot of other Acronyms
US Marshals - Initially tracked counterfeiters and maintained law and order in the West – Now hunt federal fugitives and protect airplanes.
US Postal Inspector Targets crimes committed using the mail
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Formed in 1908 – Investigates federal crimes
Alcohol Tobacco and Firearms (ATF) Investigation and prevention of federal offenses involving the unlawful use, manufacture, and possession of firearms and explosives; acts of arson and bombings; and illegal trafficking of alcohol and tobacco products.
Secret Service Investigates counterfeiting and protects the President and other highly-placed politicians and judges.
Border Patrol Keep drugs from crossing borders; prevents human trafficking and illegal immigration; helps fight terrorism.
Careers There are many other federal departments and agencies that can use your talents, including the DEA, Homeland Security, NSA, CIA and the military. Criminal Justice in America started from limited opportunities for the few to a plethora of opportunities for many. Keep your record clean; don’t use drugs; learn a foreign language; have good credit; and watch what you post online.