Slovak University of Technology Faculty of Material Science and Technology in Trnava Project Management
Definitions: • Project is time delimited effort that is done with only one goal to create unique result. • Software project iscollection of activities, technical and operative, which are requested to assure conditions of project agreement. • Project management include using of knowledge, skills, equipments and techniques for project activities, with goals to achieve needs and expectations of project.
Project management Development: Quality analyse, design, Change Assu- rance implementation, mngmnt testing, integration Life cycle: Waterfall modell, RUP, ...
Require- ments Analyse Design Imple- mentation Testing Project Management Configuration and Change Management Quality Assurance Training, ... Core Workflows Supporting Workflows
Successful project Successful project is finished: • Within the frame of specified time • Within the frame of defined budget • On requested performence level • Result acceptance by customer • Without any accidence in organisation • With minimum abnormality from project layout
Processes of project management: Processes arefocused on work throughout project duration. Initialization: recognition that project or phase can begin. Planning: creation and preservation of schema to ensure project run. Control: to provide that goal of project are executed. Execution: stuff coordination and other resources at the plan assurance. Completion: completion and acceptance of project.
Initialization Planning Control Execution Document flow Completion Processes of management:
I. Software project planning . The purpose of Software Project Planning is to establish reasonable plans for performing the software engineering and for managing the software project. Software Project Planning involves developing estimates for the work to be performed, establishing the necessary commitments, and defining the plan to perform the work.
I. Software project planning . The software planning begins with a statement of the work to be performed and other constraints and goals that define and bound the software project. The software planning process includes steps to estimate the size of the software work products and the resources needed, produce a schedule, identify and assess software risks, and negotiate commitments.
I. Software project planning . Iterating through these steps may be necessary to establish the plan for the software project (i.e., the software development plan). This plan provides the basis for performing and managing the software project's activities and addresses the commitments to the software project's customer according to the resources, constraints, and capabilities of the software project.
Goals Goal 1 Software estimates are documented for use in planning and tracking the software project. Goal 2 Software project activities and commitments are planned and documented. Goal 3 Affected groups and individuals agree to their commitments related to the software project.
Ability to perform Ability 1 - A documented and approved statement of work exists for the software project. Ability 2 - Responsibilities for developing the software development plan are assigned. Ability 3 - Adequate resources and funding are provided for planning the software project. Ability 4 - The software managers, software engineers, and other individuals involved in the software project planning are trained in the software estimating and planning procedures applicable to their areas of responsibility.
Activities performed Activity 1 - Software project planning is initiated in the early stages of, and in parallel with, the overall project planning. Activity 2 - The software engineering group participates with other affected groups in the overall project planning throughout the project's life. Activity 3 - Software project commitments made to individuals and groups external to the organization are reviewed with senior management according to a documented procedure. Activity 4 - A software life cycle with predefined stages of manageable size is identified or defined. Activity 5 - The project's software development plan is developed according to a documented procedure.
Activity 6 - The plan for the software project is documented. Activity 7 - Software work products that are needed to establish and maintain control of the software project are identified. Activity 8 - Estimates for the size of the software work products are derived according to a documented procedure. Activity 9 - Estimates for the software project's effort and costs are derived according to a documented procedure. Activity 10 - The project's software schedule is derived according to a documented procedure. Activity 11 - Software planning data are recorded.
Verifying implementation Verification 1 - The activities for software project planning are reviewed with senior management on a periodic basis. Verification 2 - The activities for software project planning are reviewed with the project manager on both a periodic and event-driven basis. Verification 3 - The software quality assurance group reviews and/or audits the activities and work products for software project planning and reports the results.
Planning tools I. Net graphs II. Segment graphs
I. Net graphs PERT (EIN)– Program Evaluation and Review Technique – the method of evaluation and control of project – event in nod PDM (AIN)– Precedence diagraming Method – the method of precedency diagram – activity in nod AOA (ADM)– Activity on Arrow
activity Event Typ of net graphs:
What the net graph is The net graph is visual displaying that connect project activities with the aim of display its interaction dependency. Each activity has unions with former and following activities
A C 2 A B C 3 A B 7 B Graphical convention : A, B - activity 3 – nod Fusion Dividing
R S T U Graphical convention : R before S, T beforeU
R S U T Graphical convention : R and T before S and U
R S T U Graphical convention : R a T before S, T beforeU Dummy activity, lenght = 0
CPM (Critical Path Method ) CPM/PERT is based on the basis that a small set of activities, which make up the longest path through the activity network control the entire project. If these "critical" activities could be identified and assigned to responsible persons, management resources could be optimally used by concentrating on the few activities which determine the fate of the entire project. Non-critical activities can be rescheduled and resources for them can be reallocated flexibly, without affecting the whole project.
CPM (Critical Path Method ): • CPM/PERT have been useful in planning costs, scheduling manpower and machine time. • CPM/PERT can answer the following important questions: • What will be the project duration? • What are the critical activities which could delay the entire project if they were not completed on time? • What is the current status of the project i.e. Is the project on schedule, behind schedule or ahead of schedule? • If the project has to be finished earlier than planned, what is the best way to do this at the least cost?
Procedure: • Specify the Individual Activities: • From the work breakdown structure, a listing can be made of all the activities in the project. This listing can be used as the basis for adding sequence and duration information in later steps • 2. Determine the Sequence of the Activities: • Some activities are dependent on the completion of others. A listing of the immediate predecessors of each activity is useful for constructing the CPM network diagram. • 3. Draw the Network Diagram: • Once the activities and their sequencing have been defined, the CPM diagram can be drawn. CPM originally was developed as an activity on node (AON) network, but some project planners prefer to specify the activities on the arcs.
4. Estimate Activity Completion Time: The time required to complete each activity can be estimated using past experience or the estimates of knowledgeable persons. CPM is a deterministic model that does not take into account variation in the completion time, so only one number is used for an activity's time estimate 5. Identify the Critical Path: The critical path is the longest-duration path through the network. The significance of the critical path is that the activities that lie on it cannot be delayed without delaying the project. Because of its impact on the entire project, critical path analysis is an important aspect of project planning
TERMINOLOGIES: Earliest Start: The earliest time at which the activity can start given that its precedent activities must be completed first. It is the value in the rectangle near the tail of each activity Earliest Finish: This is equal to the earliest start time for the activity plus the time required to complete the activity i.e. Earliest Start + Duration Latest Finish: The latest time at which the activity can be completed without delaying the project. It is the value in the diamond at the head of each activity Latest Start: It is equal to the latest finish time minus the time required to complete the activity i.e.Latest Finish - Duration
Question: • What happened if some of activity will delay? • How the whole length of project will change? • It is possible to discover it by using CPM method.
Critical Path: The critical path is the path through the project network in which none of the activities have slack, that is, the path for which ES=LS and EF=LF for all activities in the path.
3 = reserve 5 0 6 F 2 0 3 E A 4 0 0 D C G 1 7 4 0 B (4,9) (1,9) (10,13) (18,29) (14,23) (24,29) (30,36) 3 A=6 B=9 C=4 D=12 E=10 F=6 G=7 Dummy activity, length= 0 Example. (1,6) (4,9) (1,6) (1,9) (10,13) (14,25) (14,23) (24,29) (30,36) (1,9) (1,9)
5 6 F 2 E A D C G 1 7 4 B 3 Critical path – there is no time reserve !
II. Segment graphs • graphically represent the time plan of activities or tasks. • there is seen, which activities are in ample time besides the plan and which has delay • sometimes are called Gantt diagram • segment graphs are not suitable for project control • segment graphs are suitable as a pointer thana planning tool
Activity Now realization A 80% Degree of finalization B 75% Plan C 60% D Time
Work Breakdown Structure WBS is a fundamental project management technique for defining and organizing the total scope of a project, using a hierarchical tree structure. The first two levels of the WBS (the root node and Level 2) define a set of planned outcomes that collectively and exclusively represent 100% of the project scope. At each subsequent level, the children of a parent node collectively and exclusively represent 100% of the scope of their parent node.
The 100% Rule One of the most important WBS design principles is called the 100% Rule. The 100% Rule...states that the WBS includes 100% of the work defined by the project scope and captures all deliverables – internal, external, interim – in terms of the work to be completed, including project management.
Level of detail A question to be answered in the design of any WBS is when to stop dividing work into smaller elements. A common way of deciding the detailing level is the time between status reports/meetings. If the team reports bi-weekly the largest work package should be 80 hours. Then at reporting time a package is either not started, in progress, finished or late. This way makes it easy catching delays.
Decomposition Considerations (Breadth vs. Depth) WBS will tend to be most useful for project management when its breadth and depth are thoughtfully balanced. A common pitfall is to inadequately group related elements, resulting in one or more nodes of the WBS becoming "too wide" to support effective management.
WBS coding scheme It is common for WBS elements to be numbered sequentially to reveal the hierarchical structure. For example 1.3.2 Rear Wheel identifies this item as a Level 3 WBS element, since there are three numbers separated by a decimal point. A coding scheme also helps WBS elements to be recognized in any written context.
WBS Timetable + resource allocating Netgraph or Gantt 1 WBS- as a part of planning techniques
Task xxx Cost assessment: - working - overhead - nonworking - general - other Task xxx Reality Plan Diference Working– – – Overhead– – – Nonworking– – – General– – – Other– – – 1 Reality: - reports - orders - accounting. Plán